A sterilized loop was dipped into the suspension of desired organ

A sterilized loop was dipped into the suspension of desired organism and was streaked on the surface Alectinib of solidified agar plate. The plates were then incubated for 24–48 h to get the individual colonies. Bacteria grows on the surface nutrient agar, and is clearly visible as small colonies. Thermal soil samples were inoculated in anaerobic liquid basal medium consisting of (g/l): NH4Cl 0.5, Yeast extract 5, K2HPO4 0.25, KCl 0.002, MgCl26H2O 0.125, NH4CO3 0.4, Peptone 1, NH4H2PO4 0.4, NaH2PO4 0.5. Trace element 1 ml, vitamin solution 1 ml.20 Sucrose (10 g/l)

was used as a carbon and energy source. All the culture bottles were incubated at 70 °C for 3 days and sub cultured after 3 days of incubation. All the sub cultures and diluted cultures were incubated at 70 °C under atmospheric pressure. Cells were observed under a light microscope and pure isolate was routinely cultivated in anaerobic liquid basal medium. Morphological characteristics were investigated. Gram staining was performed to confirm the gram reaction and spore position. Motility was determined by hanging drop method.19 All isolates were evaluated by conventional tests for catalase, oxidase, indole, urease, methyl red, voges-proskauer, citrate utilization, triple sugar AZD0530 in vivo iron, starch hydrolysis, hydrogen sulphide and oxidative

fermentative carbohydrate utilization.19 Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolate using Pure Fast® Bacterial Genomic DNA isolation kit. 1 μL of genomic DNA was used as template and amplified by PCR using Master Mix Gene kit (HELINI biomolecules Chennai, India) with the aid

of 16S rDNA primers (16S Forward Primer: 5-AGAGTRTGATCMTYGCTWAC-3 16S Reverse Primer: 5-CGYTAMCTTWTTACGRCT-3) with MTMR9 the programme consisted of denaturation at 94 °C for 1 min and subsequent 35 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 30 sec, annealing at 60 °C for 1 min, and extension at 72 °C for 1 min followed by final extension at 72 °C for 5 min. Amplified product was sequenced using the Dye Deoxy Terminator Cycle sequencing kit (HELINI biomolecules Chennai, India) as directed in the manufacturer’s protocol. The nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of the isolate was compared with other related sequences using FASTA programme. Further, the nucleotide sequences of the isolate was aligned with closely related sequence using CLUSTAL W mega version-5. The hydrogen production by P. stutzeri was analysed for the synthetic sources selected i.e. starch and sucrose. In order to find the effect of starch and sucrose, these sugars were taken 7.5 g in 1500 ml, 5.0 g in 1000 ml, 3.75 g in 750 ml, 2.5 g in 500 ml. Similarly, the amount of hydrogen produced by utilizing the mango juice effluent was also studied. For this study 1500 ml, 1000 ml, 750 ml and 500 ml mango juice effluent (waste water) were used. Mango juice effluent was collected from the Maaza juice production unit located at Krishnagiri, Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu.

Completion of all sections of the survey was not compulsory Blin

Completion of all sections of the survey was not compulsory. Blinding of respondents to the fact that BMI was the main variable of interest was necessary for the case study section of the survey because

it aimed to measure implicit (more hidden/subtle) stigma. To ensure blinding, information given to participants before the study mentioned only attitudes generally, not weight. The case studies were presented before the Anti-Fat Attitudes questionnaire with no option to review retrospectively. Furthermore, the case studies presented a number of patient characteristics including weight, so that the participants were unaware of the variable BIBF 1120 concentration of interest. Blinding was confirmed in the pilot study. Explicit weight stigma was measured by the total score of the Anti-Fat Attitudes questionnaire, as well as the score on each of the three subscales: Dislike, Fear and Willpower. The Anti-Fat Selleckchem Panobinostat Attitudes questionnaire was chosen for its psychometric rigor,30 its use in other studies investigating health professionals,31, 32 and 33 and the suitability of the questions. The Dislike subscale measures aversion towards overweight people, the Fear subscale measures fear of one’s own body weight increasing, and the Willpower subscale measures the level of personal control ascribed to body weight. Cronbach’s alphas

were: Dislike (0.81), Fear (0.78) and Willpower (0.73). The Anti-Fat Attitudes questionnaire has 13 questions scored on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 8, with

any score greater than zero indicating weight stigma. Wording was adapted slightly without altering meaning to make the questions suitable for professional Australian participants. For example, ‘If I were an employer looking to hire, I might avoid hiring a fat person’ was changed to ‘If I were an employer, I might avoid hiring an overweight person’. All Anti-Fat Attitudes questionnaire items are presented in Appendix 1 (see the eAddenda). Implicit weight stigma was measured using participants’ responses to three case studies, which are presented in Appendix 1 (see the eAddenda). Comparisons were made between cases, which were identical apart from BMI below category (normal or overweight/obese), and free-text responses were analysed thematically. Case studies were chosen because they have clinical relevance and can investigate implicit attitudes. Other measures such as implicit attitudes tests are available, but their ability to predict behaviours is contested.34 The case studies were designed to be typical presentations of various physiotherapy patients from a number of clinical areas, so that most physiotherapists would feel qualified to comment on them and no one clinical discipline was given preference. The clinical cases were designed by a physiotherapist with 18 years of clinical experience (the primary author). Feedback from the pilot study confirmed similarity of the cases to real physiotherapy patients.

2) (35) These results indicate that NOSs in bone marrow cells

2) (35). These results indicate that NOSs in bone marrow cells

exert an inhibitory effect on vascular lesion formation caused by blood flow disruption in mice in vivo, SB431542 price demonstrating a novel vasculoprotective role of NOSs in bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells. During 11 months of follow-up, all (100%) of the wild-type mice lived, whereas only 15% of the triple NOSs null mice survived (Fig. 3A) (33). The survival rate was significantly worse in accordance with the number of disrupted NOS genes in the order of single, double, and triple NOSs null mice. Postmortem examination revealed that 55% of the triple NOSs null mice died of myocardial infarction (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4A) (33). This is the first demonstration to show that a deficiency of NOSs leads to the development of spontaneous myocardial infarction. In the coronary arteries of the dead triple NOSs null mice, marked intimal formation, medial thickening, and mast cell infiltration were noted, while intra-coronary thrombus was rarely observed

CH5424802 nmr (Fig. 4A–C) (33). Histamine released from adventitial mast cells is thought to cause coronary vasospasm with resultant myocardial infarction in humans (36). It is thus possible that coronary intimal hyperplasia, medial thickening, and vasospasm are involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction in the triple NOSs null mice. Although human myocardial infarction mainly results from rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent thrombus formation, the triple NOSs null mice seem to be a model of non-atherosclerotic forms of acute myocardial infarction in humans. In the triple NOSs null mice, there was a complete lack of endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine, which is a physiological GBA3 eNOS activator, and contractions to phenylephrine, which is an α1 adrenergic

receptor agonist, were markedly potentiated (33). Thus, vascular dysfunction could also be involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction in the triple NOSs null mice. The renin-angiotensin system was markedly activated in the triple NOSs null mice, and long-term treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker olmesartan potently inhibited coronary arteriosclerotic lesion formation, vascular mast cell infiltration, and the occurrence of myocardial infarction in those mice, with a resultant improvement of the prognosis (33). These results suggest that the AT1 receptor pathway is involved in the occurrence of spontaneous myocardial infarction in the triple NOSs null mice.

Using pp65 soluble peptides loaded externally on iDCs, both Smyle

Using pp65 soluble peptides loaded externally on iDCs, both SmyleDCs and SmartDCs potently stimulated T cells to proliferate and upregulated the production of several inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-3, GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-5), resulting into “licensed antigen presentation” of different pp65 antigenic determinants in vitro (20–30% of the cells stimulated in vitro for 7 days were reactive against pp65 epitopes). The pp65-reactive T cells stimulated in vitro with peptides were in the majority characterized as T central memory (TCM, 43–58%) and T effector memory (TEM, 40–47%) phenotype. Interestingly, SmyleDCs bypassed the requirement of additional in vitro maturation with recombinant

cytokines for optimal antigen-specific T cell stimulation ( Fig. S7), indicating that SmyleDCs are more endogenously activated than SmartDCs. When the pp65 antigen was provided internally, in the form of a full-length pp65 antigen expressed stably for 3 weeks mTOR inhibitor by a co-transduced ID-LV, we observed potent stimulation of pp65-reactive multivalent T cells in vitro ( Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). Notably, in this setting the majority of the T cells displayed a TEM phenotype (although 10–40% of TCM were also observed); possibly indicating that pp65 internal processing by the iDCs per se provided higher immune stimulation. Moreover, these iDCs were endowed with potent functional activities in vivo, as

they were able to directly stimulate the generation of effector CD8+ T cell responses in NRG mice reconstituted with human lymphocytes. Since NRG mice lack a functional lymphatic system and lymph nodes to where iDCs could migrate to, it is therefore likely that find more iDCs

stimulated T cells directly on the immunization sites. too Based on these results, the use of SmyleDCs or SmartDCs co-expressing pp65 for the development of prophylactic vaccines to boost the immune response in lymphopenic hosts at high risk of HCMV infection should be considered. It has been demonstrated that the transfer of adoptive immunity against HCMV after HSCT depends on the specificity and memory phenotype of specific T cells in the donor [44]. Thus, a potential population target for vaccination in order to avoid HCMV recurrent reactivations would be immunosuppressed HCMV seropositive recipients of grafts from seropositive or seronegative donors. After transplantation, recipients would be vaccinated with iDCs produced from donor’s monocytes in order to minimize graft-versus-host disease. Regarding the choice between the two types of iDCs for an antiviral vaccine, it is tempting to speculate that SmyleDCs would be the first choice, based on several proposed superior attributes conferred to DCs produced in the presence of IFN-α instead of IL-4 which led to a recent clinical trials using ex vivo generated DCs as vaccines for chronically infected HIV-1 patients (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00796770) [21].

5 mm and ≤ 4 0 mm by angiogram; 4) main target vessel classified

5 mm and ≤ 4.0 mm by angiogram; 4) main target vessel classified as Thrombolysis and Myocardial Infarction HKI 272 (TIMI) grade 3 flow and 5) lesion length ≤ 25 mm. Patients were excluded if there was evidence of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) within 72 hours prior to the intended treatment or previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or surgery on any vessel within 30 days prior to the intended intervention. Additionally, only one lesion could

be treated during the index procedure. If the patient had two lesions, the patient was staged and the non-target lesion was treated first. Per study protocol, the creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels were required to be within laboratory normal ranges at least 12 hours after non-target lesion treatment and within 8 hours prior to treating the target lesion. The Diamondback 360º® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System (Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., St. Paul, MN) has been successfully used to treat calcified peripheral vascular stenosis

since 2007. The system has been adapted for use in coronary arteries. The OAS is a percutaneous, endovascular system that incorporates the use of centrifugal force and differential sanding to modify calcified lesions. The OAS utilizes an eccentrically mounted, diamond-coated crown (Fig. 1) that orbits over an atherectomy guide wire at high speeds. Position of the crown within the vessel learn more is controlled via a control handle (Fig. 2). As treatment proceeds, a thin layer of plaque is removed with each pass of the crown. This allows the crown to “sand” away the calcified lesion while the more elastic these tissue flexes away from the crown to increase lumen size and modify plaque compliance, depending on the rotational speed chosen. The crown’s orbital diameter expands radially via centrifugal force. The orbital atherectomy procedure removes the calcified stenotic lesion material to increase vessel compliance prior to balloon angioplasty and stent placement, which

may lead to reduced acute vascular injury. Overall, 50 patients were enrolled in the ORBIT I multi-center study. One of the participating centers (Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad, India) enrolled and followed 33 of these 50 ORBIT I patients were followed up at Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad, India. Ethics committee approval was received and Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines were followed for the conduct of the study. Patients who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and gave written informed consent were enrolled. All procedures were performed electively. Patients underwent percutaneous coronary treatment in the standard fashion.

4) Direct comparison

of IgG titres with IgA titres in ei

4). Direct comparison

of IgG titres with IgA titres in either site was not possible, as the IgA antibody assay used an additional amplification step that had previously been shown to give better discrimination between low positive results and background, non-specific binding. Comparison of total IgG and IgA concentrations was also precluded as a purified cynomolgus macaque IgA was unavailable for calibration of the IgA assay selleck products and therefore purified human IgA was used. Serum virus neutralising activity against clade C tier 1 MW965.26 pseudovirus was induced in 2 of 4 animals of Group A, albeit only at very low titre in one animal, following adjuvanted intramuscular immunisation; in 3 of 4 animals of Group B at low titre following intravaginal immunisation and in 4 of 4 animals of Group C following 3 intramuscular immunisations – this activity

was not boosted by subsequent intravaginal immunisation. No activity was seen in animals of Group D 34 days after intramuscular immunisation (Table 3). In sera where neutralising activity was detected above the cut-off buy Dasatinib titre of 60, strong correlations were found between this activity and both IgG (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and IgA (r = 0.82, P < 0.001; Pearson product moment correlation) anti-gp140 binding titres ( Fig. 5). In sera from animals of Groups B and C, anti-gp140 IgG titres greater than 3000 were invariably predictive of neutralising ALOX15 activity. Notably, this was not the case for Group A, where despite the induction of high titres of anti-gp140 IgG (16,000–134,000) following intravaginal immunisation, appreciable neutralising activity was detected only in animal E54 which had the highest binding antibody titre. To determine

the breadth of neutralising activity, sera were tested against a range of pseudotypes including 4 other tier 1 envelopes. Although no activity was seen against TV1.21, another clade C envelope, some activity was detected against the clade B SF162.LS (Table 3), but not against clade B, BaL.26 or clade A, DJ263.8. Neither was any neutralising activity seen against any of 13 tier 2, clade C envelopes (96ZM651.02, Du156.12, Du172.17, Du422.1, CAP45.2.00.G3, CAP210.2.00.E8, ZM197M.PB7, ZM214M.PL15, ZM233M.PB6, ZM249M.PL1, ZM53M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, ZM135M.PL10a). Cross-reactivity between clade C and clade B was restricted to sera with high-titre neutralisation against MW965.26 (titres of 594–2846); however sera from animal E58, with titres within this range failed to cross-react. To determine the distribution of ex vivo anti-gp140 specific antibody secreting cells (ASC), mononuclear cells (MNC) were obtained from tissues of Groups A and D animals at necropsy.

33 ± 0 05, 0 54 ± 0 05, 0 71 ± 0 05 for Ketoprofen, Methyl Parabe

33 ± 0.05, 0.54 ± 0.05, 0.71 ± 0.05 for Ketoprofen, Methyl Paraben, Propyl Paraben respectively. Calibration curves were polynomial in the range 200–1000 ng/band, 200–1500 ng/band, 100–600 ng/band, for Ketoprofen, Methyl Paraben, and Propyl Paraben respectively. Correlation coefficient (r) values were 0.9917, 0.9927, 0.9906 Ketoprofen, Methyl Paraben, Propyl Paraben respectively. A low relative standard deviation (<2%) was found for both precision and robustness study showing that the proposed method was precise and robust. The method had an accuracy of 99.96%, 99.91% and 101.05 Ketoprofen, Methyl Paraben, Propyl Paraben respectively. Method had the potential to determine these drugs simultaneously

from dosage forms without any interference, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The limit of detection was Selleckchem Selinexor 138.41 ng/band, 58.15 ng/band and 24.16 ng/band

for KETO, MP and PP respectively and limit of quantification was 418.15 ng/band, 108.14 ng/band and 68.15 ng/band for KETO, MP and PP respectively and the method was found to be specific. The percentage recovery ranges from 99 to 101%. Forced degradation conditions of hydrolysis (neutral, acidic and alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as suggested in the ICH guideline Q1A (R2). The drug showed instability in acid and oxide, while it remained stable in neutral conditions. The proposed method for simultaneous estimation (HPLC) of Ketoprofen, Methyl Paraben and Propyl Paraben in their formulated gel dosage and validated as per ICH guidelines. Moreover the method is economic, simple and rapid, hence can be employed for routine selleckchem analysis in quality control 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl laboratories. All authors have none to declare. I sincerely

thank Zim Laboratory, Nagpur, Maharashtra and Gen Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra for providing me the gift sample of KETO, MP and PP and I thank my lab technicians for their contribution. “
“L’élastométrie hépatique est un moyen diagnostique efficient de la fibrose hépatique chez les patients consommateurs excessifs d’alcool. La faisabilité de l’élastométrie est bonne chez des patients hospitalisés en addictologie. “
“Le nombre de personnes atteintes de cancer en France est en augmentation du fait du vieillissement de la population et de l’allongement de la durée de vie. L’incidence des cancers a augmenté ces 25 dernières années en France, puisqu’elle a pratiquement doublé [1], mais grâce aux progrès thérapeutiques, le cancer est devenu une maladie chronique et, de ce fait, il est plus souvent associé à des douleurs persistantes séquellaires qui nécessiteront un traitement symptomatique au long cours. Les projections d’incidence du cancer en France pour 2012 sont disponibles sur le site de l’Institut de Veille Sanitaire [1]. On estime à 355 000 le nombre de nouveaux cas de cancer en France métropolitaine en 2012 (200 000 diagnostiqués chez l’homme et 155 000 chez la femme).

Following the

introduction of a new programme of vaccinat

Following the

introduction of a new programme of vaccination, the incidence of infection would be expected to follow a well recognised pattern [48] and [49]. There is an initial drop in incidence, called the honeymoon period, brought about by the addition of protection arising from immunisation to the existing naturally acquired check details immunity. The resulting fall in incidence leads to a reduction in naturally acquired immunity, allowing a partial rebound. Infection incidence then settles into a new suppressed cycle. This pattern is consistent with the observed pattern of laboratory confirmed influenza in England and Wales. While the temporal pattern of influenza incidence is consistent with the available observed data, the lack of recent population wide data on infection incidence and prevalence is a Vemurafenib nmr limitation to modelling influenza transmission. The collection of good quality population level data on the incidence and prevalence of influenza infection would help to reduce uncertainty when calibrating such models. However, alternative analyses of the impact of vaccination policies, which fail to account for the dynamic nature of transmission, risk seriously underestimating the potential effects of such policies. A further weakness in the

model is the inconclusive also nature of data on the duration of vaccine induced immunity as well as on that arising from natural infection. Should the duration of vaccine induced immunity be significantly shorter than its naturally arising counterpart, then the impact of paediatric vaccination would be reduced. While multiple studies have shown the indirect benefit (herd immunity) in adults through vaccinating children against influenza [41], [50] and [51], each of these studies used different study designs resulting in variability in the estimated benefits. Additional studies comparing

real world dynamics of influenza transmission against dynamic models are of interest. This analysis demonstrates the complex and inter-related nature of factors influencing the evaluation of paediatric influenza vaccination. While there remains uncertainty in many of the parameters, the qualitative picture emerging suggests that paediatric vaccination may result in substantial benefits to children, as well as to those at risk of influenza related complications and to the elderly. “
“Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral disease that represents a major worldwide public health concern, particularly for those living in tropical countries and people traveling to these zones. Globally, more than 2.5 billion people are exposed to dengue virus (DENV) infection in endemic areas, and thousands of them die each year [1].

The authors hypothesised that in the event of an exacerbation, an

The authors hypothesised that in the event of an exacerbation, an action plan that aims at early contact with healthcare providers would promote prompt intervention, leading to faster recovery in symptoms and health status. The study shows positive results for health status and symptom recovery, without an increase in the proportion of exacerbations reported to healthcare providers. The latter is somewhat surprising, but the authors indicate that

a possible explanation can be found in the increased self-efficacy (and possible better self-management strategies) and milder exacerbations in the intervention group. In contrast to other studies (Bourbeau et al 2003, Effing et al 2009, Rice et al 2010) overall health care use did not change. Whereas stand-alone COPD exacerbation action plans are used with increasing frequency, evidence is accumulating Navitoclax that the effectiveness of these plans without

case manager back-up and self-management training is very limited (Walters et al 2010). Self-management training aimed at behavioural change along with case-manager assistance are the strategies most likely crucial to the success of action plans. This study underlines the usefulness NVP-AUY922 of action plans during COPD exacerbations when coupled with case management and implemented as part of straightforward self-management training programs for patients without severe co-morbid diseases. “
“Of the many options for the measurement

of pain in clinical populations, the most commonly used are Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) and Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) (Lichter-Kelly 2007). While similar, these two measurement tools employ slightly different methods to quantify pain. Although it is noted that pain is widely considered a multidimensional construct, measurement of pain intensity is often recorded at the exclusion of the other dimensions. While not denying the relevance and importance of the emotional and evaluative aspects of pain, this summary concerns the measurement of pain intensity. Pain intensity: VAS and NRS generally involve a single question that asks the patient to rate Carnitine dehydrogenase their pain intensity on either a 10 cm line (VAS) or by choosing a number, usually between 0 and 10 (NRS). The ends of both scales are anchored by some variant of ‘no pain at all’ and ‘pain as bad as you can imagine’. A VAS is scored by measuring how far along from the ‘no pain’ end point the patient marks the line and the NRS by recording the number chosen. The question specifies a time period, eg, right now, or over the past 24 hours, or over the past week, and also whether the patient should rate average pain, worst pain, or least pain, over that period. Reproducibility and validity of pain intensity: VAS and NRS are generally regarded as acceptable for both research and practice.

f D C a , 2012) While individual-level prevention and treatment

f.D.C.a., 2012). While individual-level prevention and treatment programs have achieved limited success, environmental strategies to increase physical activity and reduce smoking (e.g. zoning policies to facilitate physical activity; smoking bans in public places) have been shown to be important components for improving population health (Glanz et al., 2005, Khan et al., 2009, Selleckchem Cisplatin Koplan et al., 2005 and Story et al., 2008). In 2009 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)3 launched the Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative (CPPW),4 aimed at reducing obesity and tobacco use by funding 50 awardees, including three Native American tribal awardees,

to implement evidence-based and locally driven environmental strategies to reduce obesity and tobacco use within their communities (Bunnell

et al., 2012). The Institutes of Medicine and CDC have increasingly promoted environmental approaches to address obesity (Glanz et al., 2005, Khan find more et al., 2009, Koplan et al., 2005 and Story et al., 2008); however, little is known about the implementation of such strategies within Native American communities (Blue Bird Jernigan et al., 2012, Caballero et al., 2003, Davis and Reid, 1999 and Teufel and Ritenbaugh, 1998). The generalizability of evidence-based environmental strategies within geographically, culturally, and politically diverse tribal sovereign nations is poorly understood.

To address gaps in knowledge and to support the dissemination of findings from CPPW, CDC contracted with ICF International to host two 4–5 day intensive training workshops for selected CPPW awardees, including the tribal awardees. ADAMTS5 These workshops were designed to train awardees in how to analyze their data, which included for all tribes both qualitative (e.g. focus group and interview data) and quantitative (e.g. survey and policy scan data) and produce submission-ready manuscripts for publication in scientific peer-reviewed journals. An additional one-day pre-conference workshop was offered to the tribal awardees to discuss culturally responsive and participatory evaluation with Native American communities. The workshop addressed issues unique to Native communities, including the lack of culturally relevant and validated environmental measures (e.g. measures of traditional food practices and associated physical activity to obtain these foods) (Blue Bird Jernigan et al., 2012, deGonzague et al., 1999 and Story et al., 2000); tribal political and structural conditions in policy development as well as the publication process (Frohlich and Potvin, 2008 and Warnecke et al., 2008); and ways that historical abuses by non-Native outside researchers have created negative perceptions of publication in some tribal communities (Atkins et al., 1988, Foulks, 1989 and Mello and Wolf, 2010).