Xinglongwa in Northeast China’s Liao River drainage near modern Shenyang was a large settlement that by about 8000 cal BP contained over 100 large semi-subterranean houses laid out in orderly rows and partially surrounded by a ditch. Of the economic base, only nut remains were found preserved there, but nearby Xinglonggu, of the same culture, yielded much foxtail and broomcorn millets and soybean (Crawford, 2006, Nelson, 1995, Ye, 1992 and Zhao, 2011). By about 7000 cal BP some communities in resource-rich west-central Korea were growing quite large, and many of these contained, in addition to household dwellings, larger structures
that served collective community functions related to fishing Tanespimycin molecular weight and other productive activities. Of many early Neolithic (locally known as Chulmun) sites investigated in Korea, perhaps the best known is Amsadong (7100–5300 cal BP) on the Han River within modern Seoul (Nelson, 1993). It has revealed some 20 substantial pit houses in a settlement
fed by the intensive harvest collection of a broad spectrum of food resources. In addition to Amsadong, the Misari, Osanri, Jitapri, and Masanri sites all represent settlements fed by intensive harvest collection and a broad spectrum of food resources. Evidence based on charred grains confirms cultivation by the Ibrutinib price Middle Chulmun around 5500–5300 cal BP at the latest (Lee, 2011). On click here Korea’s northeast coast the site of Osanri, just south of the modern boundary between North and South Korea, is a substantial and well-studied residential community dated to about 7500 cal BP (Shin et al., 2012). People there were heavily involved in catching large fish and processing plant foods, as attested by abundant large fishhooks, numerous
saddle querns, mortars, and pestles, and some carbonized acorn remains. It is interesting to note that the distinctive character of the site’s Yunggimun (appliqué) pottery shows a cultural connection northward to the middle Amur River Novopetrovka culture of the Russian Far East. At Ulsan Sejukri, an Early Chulmun shell midden southward down Korea’s east coast that is dated to about 6600–7600 cal BP, the inhabitants collected mussels, oysters, clams, and scallops in quantity and also took tuna, shark, gray mullet, sea bream, and flounder from deeper waters. They stored plant foods in 18 storage pits laid out in two parallel rows, some of which still contained carbonized acorns (Quercus). Plant remains from the site also included edible wild chenopod (Chenopodium) and bramble (Rubus) seeds in significant quantity ( Lee, 2011). Bibongri shell midden, southwest of Sejukri, also shows a similar wild plant harvesting and fishing economy, along with a dugout boat that was no doubt employed in those activities ( Lee, 2011).