BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and t

BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue Tubastatin A price levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (CD) 15, and postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissues and then decreased from PNDs 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to

both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on CD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PNDs 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5-17 in order to evaluate the

neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle selleck chemicals control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Hyperlipidemia increases the level of blood plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) that is responsible for regulating fibrinolysis by inhibiting both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). While this fibrinolytic

pathway is well known, the role of PAI-1 in venous thrombosis (VT) under hyperlipidemic conditions has not been fully established. We sought to determine the effects of PAI-1 in an in vivo see more hyperlipidemic model of VT.

Methods: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice (ApoE-/-) having hyperlipidemia, and PAI-1 gene-deleted (PAI-1-/-) mice were used in this study. Inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation below the level of the renal veins was performed to create a stasis VT. Endpoints included measuring acute thrombosis (day 2) and chronic thrombosis (days 6 and 14). At euthanasia, blood samples were collected for plasmin and PAI-1 activity. In addition, the IVC and its thrombus were evaluated for thrombus weight (TW), u-PA activity, and differential leukocyte count while the vein wall only was analyzed for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9.

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