(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc “
“Synaptic transmission dep

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Synaptic transmission depends critically on the Sec1p/Munc18 protein Munc18-1, but it is unclear whether Munc18-1 primarily operates as a integral part of the fusion machinery or has a more upstream role in fusion complex assembly. Here, we show that point mutations in Munc18-1 that interfere with binding

to the free Syntaxin1a N-terminus and strongly impair binding to assembled SNARE this website complexes all support normal docking, priming and fusion of synaptic vesicles, and normal synaptic plasticity in munc18-1 null mutant neurons. These data support a prevailing role of Munc18-1 before/during SNARE-complex assembly, while its continued association to assembled SNARE complexes is dispensable for synaptic transmission. The EMBO Journal (2012) 31, 2156-2168. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.72; Published online 23 March 2012″
“Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and an increased susceptibility to recurrent infections, autoimmunity GM6001 and cancers. There are some conflicting results regarding the cytokine profile of CVID patients. While cytokine production could be associated with gene polymorphism, genetic profiles of a number of cytokines were analyzed in this study. The allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphic genes coding for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were

investigated in 30 patients with CVID in comparison with 140 controls. The genotype TGF-beta CG at position +915 was significantly overrepresented in the patient group, while the frequencies of the genotypes TGF-beta TT at +869 and GG at +915 were significantly decreased in the patient buy GSK923295 group in comparison with controls. TGF-beta TC and IL-2 GT were the most frequent haplotypes in the patients, whereas the TGF-beta TG haplotype was significantly decreased in the patient group. The allele and genotype frequencies of interferon-gamma at position UTR +5644 and also IL-12 at position -1188 were similar in patients and controls. Cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms could play a role in the pathophysiology of CVID. Considering the significantly lower frequency

of the high production haplotype (TG) and the higher frequency of the low production halplotype (TC) of TGF-beta, low production of this cytokine is expected in some CVID patients. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Although concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced experimental hepatitis is thought to be induced by activated T cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and cytokines, precise mechanisms are still unknown. In the current study, we investigated the roles of Kupffer cells, NKT cells, FasL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and superoxide in Con-A hepatitis in C57BL/6 mice. Removal of Kupffer cells using gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) from the liver completely inhibited Con-A hepatitis, whereas increased serum TNF and IFN-gamma levels were not inhibited at all.

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