NO3- and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO2] than under ambient RZ [CO2] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO2], NO3- and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO2], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO3- and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO2] caused partial stomatal closure,
maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO2] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between maximal A and total selleck screening library shoot reduced N concentration of plants under different RZ [CO2], indicating that increased A under elevated RZ [CO2] could partially be due to the higher shoot total reduced N.”
“Background: High values of resting heart rate were found to be correlated with adverse outcomes in various patient groups. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable technique in determining autonomic nervous system function. Our aim was to evaluate whether a 10-second resting heart rate obtained from a resting electrocardiogram (ECG), could
be used as a reliable evaluation of short-term HRV.
Methods: selleck inhibitor Seventy-nine healthy volunteers were included in the study.
All participants underwent a 10-second ECG, and 5-minute HRV measurement under strict criteria.
Results: A significantly negative correlation was found between resting heart rate and 5-minutemax-RR, min-RR, standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences of RR intervals (RMSSD), HRV triangular CHIR 99021 index, number of intervals differing by 50 milliseconds from the preceding interval (NN50), pNN50, standard deviation of the points perpendicular to the line of identity (SD1), standard deviation along the line of identity (SD2), and high frequency spectral component (HF). A significant positive correlation was found between resting heart rate and a 5-minute low frequency spectral component (LF) and LF/HF ratio. Specifically, max-RR and min-RR were found to have the best correlation with resting heart rate.
Conclusions: Resting heart rate obtained from a 10-second ECG can be used for crude estimation of all HRV results in healthy individuals who do not take medications, with variable efficacy depending on the measured parameter. Resting heart rate was especially efficient in predicting max-RR and min-RR. Further research should focus on assessing the reliability of a resting heart rate for HRV evaluation, in patients with autonomic dysfunction and high-risk cardiac patients.