5% DSS mixed with normal chow. In the second group, the mice were fed 3.5% DSS plus 6.0 or 9.0% (weight/weight) cellobiose mixed with normal chow. The development of colitis was assessed on day 21. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Body weight loss was significantly attenuated in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice as compared to the DSS mice. Colonic weight/length ratio, a maker of tissue edema, was significantly higher in the DSS mice than in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. The disease activity index and histological colitis
score were also significantly higher in the DSS mice than in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. Mucosal mRNA expression for IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-17 and IP-10 were markedly reduced in the 9.0% cellobiose-fed DSS mice. In conclusion, a preventive effect of cellobiose against DSS colitis suggests its clinical use for inflammatory AG-014699 datasheet bowel diseases patients.”
“The effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection on early pregnant cows between 10 and 24 days after virus inoculation at day 26 of pregnancy was determined. Four cows were inoculated intravenously with either BVDV (treated, n=3) or growth medium (control, n = 1). The treated cows were euthanized on either day 10, 17 or 24 post-infection and the control cow was euthanized on day 24 post-infection. The level of serum 2-5A synthetase increased in all of the three treated cows. Progesterone
levels decreased GSK3235025 to below 1.0 ng/ml between 10 and 22 days after inoculation in two of the three treated cows and the embryos/foetuses of two cows died. Therefore, BVDV may be a cause of early embryonic or feotal loss in early pregnant cows and serum 2-5A synthetase may be useful as an indicator of viral infection in cows. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
ablation is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF). With improved safety, the therapy has been offered to increasingly older populations. Arrhythmia mechanisms, medical comorbidities, and safety may vary in the very elderly population.
Methods: Patients presenting AC220 clinical trial for AF ablation were divided into two groups [>= 80 years (n = 35), < 80 years (n = 717)]. AF ablation consisted of pulmonary vein antral isolation with or without additional linear lesions. A successful outcome was defined as no further AF and off all antiarrhythmic medications > 3 months following 1 + ablation procedures.
Results: The type of AF was similar in both groups (paroxysmal: 46% in the older group vs 54% in the younger, P = 0.33). Older patients were more likely to have a higher CHADS2 score, coronary artery disease, and less likely to have had a prior ablation. The hospital stay on average was longer in the older cohort (2.9 +/- 7.7 vs 2.1 +/- 1.1 days, P = 0.001). There was no increased risk of peri-procedural complications. One-year survival free of AF or flutter was 78% in those >80 and 75% in those younger (P = 0.78).