Development of therapies that can promote regenerative, rather th

Development of therapies that can promote regenerative, rather than reparative, healing hold the promise of improving patient recovery from tendon and ligament injuries by producing tissue that is morphologically and functionally equivalent to the native tissue. One therapeutic approach that has been a frequent topic of investigation in the preclinical literature is the use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) to augment tendon and ligament repair. The chemotactic, mitogenic, and pro-angiogenic

properties of rhPDGF-BB have been shown to result in recruitment and proliferation of tenogenic cells and a commensurate Staurosporine boost in extracellular matrix deposition and organization, improving the morphological and biomechanical properties of healing tendons and ligaments. The outcomes of the preclinical studies reviewed here strongly suggest that rhPDGF-BB will provide a new therapeutic opportunity to improve the treatment of injured tendons and ligaments.”
“Orlistat, an antiobesity drug with well-documented efficacy in weight reduction and maintenance, has beneficial effects on metabolic variables. It reduces the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and decreases LDL-C levels to a greater

degree than expected from weight loss alone. Orlistat is a useful therapy in overweight and obese subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. The combination of orlistat with statins, fenofibrate check details and ezetimibe led to greater reductions of LDL-C levels compared with each monotherapy. The combination of orlistat with fenofibrate or ezetimibe also further decreased the concentration of atherogenic, small, dense LDL-C, as well as total plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, and improved several cardiovascular risk factors compared with monotherapy. However, studies investigating the

combination of orlistat with other hypolipidemic drugs only included a small number of subjects with hyperlipidemia or the metabolic syndrome.”
“In this work the magnetocaloric effect in ferrimagnetic rare-earth iron garnets R3Fe5O12 where R=Y and Dy was theoretically investigated considering a model Hamiltonian, which takes into account three coupled magnetic sublattices in the mean field approximation. In Dy3Fe5O12 P5091 the inverse magnetocaloric effect was predicted and associated with the compensation temperature. Our theoretical results for the adiabatic temperature change in both compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data.”
“Recently, dental stem and progenitor cells have been harvested from periodontal tissues such as dental pulp, periodontal ligament, follicle, and papilla. These cells have received extensive attention in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their accessibility and multilineage differentiation capacity.

“Multiferroicity and magnetoelectric effects in CuO have b

“Multiferroicity and magnetoelectric effects in CuO have been investigated by measurements of magnetization, dielectric constant, and electric polarization with and without magnetic

fields. Dielectric anomalies which indicate ferroelectric transitions were observed at two magnetic transition temperatures. Ferroelectric polarization was well detected in the incommensurate spiral phase. However, both dielectric constant and polarization have little changes in a 7 T magnetic field. Our study suggests that although with a high multiferroic temperature, the spiral spin structure in CuO is very stable and the induced ferroelectricity sustains even in a high magnetic field, which results in little magnetoelectric effects. (C) 2011 American signaling pathway Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3636106]“
“In this study, compatibilizing ability of silicone carbide modified multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and polyphosphazene for the incompatible polyetherimide/liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) blend was investigated in detail. From rheological study, it was evident that the viscosities of binary and ternary blends were lower than those of the neat polymers, which signifying the great

ability of LCP buy Givinostat as a processing aid. Field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the addition of polyphosphazene and modified MWCNT, together, reduced the average domain size of LCP and improved the filler-matrix adhesion.

Measurement of surface energy from contact angle measurement also point towards the improved interfacial interaction, in presence of compatibilizers. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Songs of many songbird species consist of variable sequences of a finite number of syllables. A common approach for characterizing the syntax of these complex HKI272 syllable sequences is to use transition probabilities between the syllables. This is equivalent to the Markov model, in which each syllable is associated with one state, and the transition probabilities between the states do not depend on the state transition history. Here we analyze the song syntax in Bengalese finch. We show that the Markov model fails to capture the statistical properties of the syllable sequences. Instead, a state transition model that accurately describes the statistics of the syllable sequences includes adaptation of the self-transition probabilities when states are revisited consecutively, and allows associations of more than one state to a given syllable. Such a model does not increase the model complexity significantly. Mathematically, the model is a partially observable Markov model with adaptation (POMMA).

[DOI: 10 1063/1 3122047]“
“The essential oils from flowers,

[DOI: 10.1063/1.3122047]“
“The essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems hydrodistilled from Pimpinella tragium Vill, subsp. glauca were characterised by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The C-12 nor-sesquiterpenes are the principal class of metabolites (56.6-70.6%) among which geijerene (28.9 divided by 49.3%) and pregeijerene (10 divided by 19.1%) predominate. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration values Selleckchem Nocodazole indicate that oil obtained from the stems is the most active for

antimicrobial activities and the sample with the biggest antioxidant capacity is the flower oil.”
“In this article, we have performed detailed investigations of the 193 nm photoresist transformations after exposure to the so-called HBr and Ar plasma cure treatments using various

characterization techniques (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared, Raman analyses, and ellipsometry). By using windows with different cutoff wavelengths patched on the photoresist film, the role of the plasma vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light on the resist modifications is clearly outlined and distinguished from the role of radicals and ions from the plasma. The analyses reveal that both plasma cure treatments induce severe surface and bulk chemical modifications of the resist films. The synergistic effects of low energetic ion bombardment and VUV plasma light lead to surface graphitization or cross-linking AZD5363 (on the order of 10 nm), while the plasma VUV light (110-210 nm) is clearly identified as being responsible for ester and lactone

group removal from the resist bulk. As the resist modification depth depends strongly on the wavelength penetration into the material, it is found that HBr plasma cure that emits near 160-170 nm can chemically modify the photoresist through its entire thickness (240 nm), while the impact of Ar plasmas emitting near 100 nm is more limited. In the case of HBr cure treatment, Raman Rabusertib nmr and ellipsometry analyses reveal the formation of sp(2) carbon atoms in the resist bulk, certainly thanks to hydrogen diffusion through the resist film assisted by the VUV plasma light. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3116504]“
“This article reviews (a) risk factors and preoperative considerations of the patient with tracheoesophageal fistula, (b) anesthetic management, including (i) airway management, (ii) induction of anesthesia and monitoring and (iii) postoperative disposition, (c) considerations for concomitant congenital heart disease, (d) considerations for thoracoscopic repair and (e) long-term outcomes and considerations of the patient with repaired esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula.”
“Osteoarthritis is characterised by progressive loss of articular cartilage through the increase of catabolic metalloproteinases, and chondrocyte cytoskeleton disruption has also been reported.

Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by int

Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with carnitine metabolism and citric acid cycle activity. Block in activity of the citric acid cycle caused by alcohol and its metabolites is partially compensated by increased ketone body production, which results in ketosis. Chronic administration of alcohol induces liver injury, inflammation, cirrhosis, focal necrosis and steatosis.

L-carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-N, Quisinostat mouse N, N-trimethylaminebutyric acid) is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism, which plays a major role in transport of activated long-chain fatty acids to sites

of beta-oxidation in mitochondria. Carnitine also stabilizes cell membranes by removing long-chain acyl-CoA and excess of the acyl group from the body. L-carnitine can be a useful and safe

drug in the liver pathology induced by chronic ethanol exposure.”
“Segmental distraction osteogenesis of the anterior alveolar process is a sufficient method to enlarge the alveolar arch. Indications for this method are dental crowding, retroalveolism, and leveling of the curve of Spee. However, after the distraction period, the anterior alveolar segment often shows an unfavorable inclination resulting in nonphysiologic load on the lower incisors.

The aim of this paper was to introduce a new approach in segmental distraction osteogenesis of the anterior alveolar process. This new method combines 2 different surgical techniques: a segmental osteotomy for LY3023414 research buy the alveolar ridge with instant fixation in the desired position and a distraction procedure for the alveolar segment. This hybrid distraction avoids an unfavorable inclination of the lower incisors after front-block distraction procedures.”
“Study design: Observational, cross-sectional.

Objectives: A new classification system for trunk impairment in wheelchair rugby was introduced in 2010. It consists of 10 tests, arranged in an algorithm, to assign four different trunk scores (0, 0.5, 1.0

or 1.5) to athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of this classification system.

Setting: Quizartinib National competition for wheelchair rugby and wheelchair basketball in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Methods: Three experienced wheelchair rugby classifiers independently assigned trunk scores to wheelchair rugby and wheelchair basketball athletes in two sessions. After each session, test descriptions were adjusted. The inter-rater reliability was evaluated by determining the agreement and Fleiss Kappa.

Results: In the first session, all classifiers agreed on the trunk score in 13 out of 16 athletes; the overall Kappa was 0.76 (P < 0.001). The Kappa per trunk score ranged from 0.29 to 1. Four test descriptions were adjusted after the first session. In the second session, there was an agreement in trunk score between the classifiers in 15 out of 21 athletes. The overall Kappa was 0.75 (P < 0.

There is an increase in the incidence of cow’s milk protein aller

There is an increase in the incidence of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMA) in find more newborn population including premature infants. We report two cases of CMA in preterm twins. The first one developed recurrent episodes of proctocolitis and the second one two necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) -like episodes. Our cases

demonstrate different clinical presentations of the same disease and add to literature the peculiarity of the early onset, the recurrence of episodes of enterocolitis associated with increasing systemic eosinophilia and episodes clinically and radiologically mimicking NEC.”
“Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) deteriorates the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) is a new therapeutic

modality to treat SDB including Cheyne-Stokes respiration associated with central sleep apnea. Renal function plays critical roles in the progression of CHF and is a strong predictor of clinical outcomes. Cystatin C is a marker of renal function, and more sensitive than serum creatinine. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ASV is effective for cardiac overload and renal dysfunction in CHF patients with SDB. Fifty patients with CHF and SDB (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 34.0 %, estimated glomerular filtration AZD6094 cost rate (eGFR) 62.8 ml/min/1.73 cm(2)) were examined. We performed polysomnography for two consecutive days (baseline and on ASV), and measured levels of serum N terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), cystatin C, and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C (eGFR Cyst C). ASV significantly improved the apnea hypopnea index, central apnea index, obstructive apnea index, arousal index, mean SPO2, and lowest SPO2 compared to baseline. ASV decreased NT-pro BNP (1,109.0 (2,173.2) to 912.8 (1,576.7) pg/ml, p < 0.05), cystatin C (1.391 +/- A 0.550-1.348 +/- A 0.489 mg/l, p < 0.05), and increased eGFR Cyst C (61.9 +/- A 30.8-65.7 +/- A 33.8 ml/min/1.73 cm(2), p < 0.01).

ASV improved SDB, reduced cardiac overload, and ameliorated renal function in CHF patients with SDB. ASV has short-term beneficial effects on not only SDB but also cardio-renal function. ASV might be a promising useful tool for CHF as an important non-pharmacotherapy with cardio-renal protection.”
“Objective: To preliminarily determine GS-7977 cost whether interactions between pharmacists and patients during drive-through service encounters differed significantly from those observed during walk-in service encounters at one community chain pharmacy.

Methods: Two student pharmacist observers timed interactions and recorded observations on a standardized form at the drive-through and walk-in windows.

Results: More than 200 encounters were documented at both the drive-through and walk-in windows. Patients using the two locations were similar in terms of gender, age, and proportion of mobility impaired.


Conclusion: In this large series of patients with


Conclusion: In this large series of patients with the diagnosis of US who have undergone cochlear implantation, CT and MRI imaging were normal. Significant delay in independent ambulation was present in this population secondary to abnormal vestibular function associated with US Type I. A majority of children developed significant open-set speech perception and oral communication skills. Implantation of US children provides them with the opportunity to develop useful hearing and oral communication.”
“Background and objective: We hypothesized that the

prevalence of allergic disorders, characterized by the release of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10), selleck compound would be lower in sarcoidosis in which there

is a dominant type 1 immune response (IL-2, interferon-gamma). The objective was to measure the prevalence of atopy and self-reported asthma in patients with sarcoidosis.

Methods: Sarcoidosis patients (n = 136, 72 M, age range 22-75), recruited in the outpatient setting, completed a modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey. 123 of these patients provided blood for allergy testing.

Results: For the cohort as a whole the self-reported prevalence of asthma ever (21.5%) and asthma attack in the last 12 months (7.5%), was high as was wheezing (42.1%), breathlessness with wheeze (22.3%) and use of an asthma medication (13.1%). The prevalence of atopy was 34%. These data are not different from the previously reported prevalence MK-4827 research buy of asthma and atopy in New Zealand.

Conclusions: selleck inhibitor The same prevalence of asthma symptoms and atopy as in the normal population suggests that the immune system is not skewed away from mounting T helper type 2 immune responses in sarcoidosis.”
“Greek philosophy finds its roots in the myth of Homer’s and Hesiod’s poems and especially in Orphism which introduced the concept of a soul separated from the body with an independent

principle, psiche (soul), to be rewarded or punished after death. Orphism was an important step in Greek culture. It introduced the divine into man, the soul which does not die with the body and reincarnates. From Orphism started the need of rituals capable of separating the spirit from the body. From Homer to Acusilaos, water was a very important element which connected humans and gods, long before Thales of Miletus defined it the arche.”
“In rats, reexposure to heroin-paired contexts after extinction of lever responding in a different context reinstates heroin seeking. Previous reports indicate that ventral hippocampus/Ca1 region plays a critical role in cocaine-, cue- and context-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Here, we examined whether ventral subiculum, the output region of ventral hippocampus, is involved in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking.

These conditions favor the electrical charging/discharging of the

These conditions favor the electrical charging/discharging of the silicon nanocrystal layer via the trap-assisted tunneling selleck chemical mechanism and to the appearance of electrostatic screening effects. These dynamic phenomena appear either as a displacement current peak at the onset of accumulation or as frequency dependent admittance characteristics at strong accumulation.”
“The objective of this work was to establish a method to stabilize the color of porcine red blood cell (RBC). First,

l-cysteine was chosen to react with hemin chloride to generate a new compound. Subsequently, l-cysteine was chosen to stabilize the color of porcine RBC along with alpha-lactose. The results indicated that

l-cysteine along with alpha-lactose was effective in preventing porcine hemoglobin from oxidation and delaying porcine RBC discolor during freeze-drying and powder storage. Therefore it is a potential in the stabilizing color of RBC.”
“The use of fiber from Harakeke (or New Zealand Flax plant) for the reinforcement of composites should be explored since Harakeke has similar properties to Sisal fiber. To maximize the cellulose content in the fiber, Harakeke fibers were prepared by SHP099 in vitro thermal, combinative alkaline-thermal, and a novel combinative thermal-enzymatic-thermal treatments and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier

transform infrared spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray spectroscopy. The characterization method provided an efficient and systematic method to evaluate the removal of amorphous components such as lignin and hemicelluloses. In particular, a sequential thermal-enzymatic-thermal fiber treatment produced fine discontinuous whiskers that could be useful for short fiber composites, whereas a combinative thermal-alkaline treatment resulted in thorough extraction of lignin and hemicelluloses. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, check details Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 2710-2715, 2009″
“It is shown that an anisotropic composite structure, which consists of alternating layers with either negative permittivity or negative permeability, can switch between optical responses characteristic of right-handed and left-handed materials depending on the polarization (TE or TM) of the incident electromagnetic field. The switching possibility is maintained for a small angular range around normal incidence, the behavior of the structure for larger incidence angles showing superluminal group velocities characteristic for anisotropic metamaterials.”
“Pitaya commonly known as dragon fruit is very popular of its intense color, constituent minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant properties.

Study subjects of our cross-sectional study were recruited from t

Study subjects of our cross-sectional study were recruited from the Hungarian General Practitioners’ Morbidity Sentinel Stations Program. The study population (n = 1762) approximates very well the age and sex distribution of the general Hungarian population. MS was defined according to the latest diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation. The frequency of DD genotype (31.36% vs. 25.42%, p = 0.006) and the frequency of D allele (0.56 vs. 0.51, p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the metabolic group than in the non-metabolic group. The distribution

of the AGT M235T polymorphism was similar in each group investigated. Association was shown in the case of patients in whom central obesity was combined with elevated TG and low HDL cholesterol level (p = 0.024 and p = 0.022). It suggests that ACE I/D polymorphism Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclodextrin is likely to be involved in lipid metabolism.”
“The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein GSK2126458 degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system

(UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address

this question. Here we use check details a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount of polyubiquibated protein. Other animals were trained with similar procedures but were infused with either a proteasome inhibitor (clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone) or a translation inhibitor (anisomycin) in the PFC immediately after training. Our results show increased UPS-mediated protein degradation in the PFC following trace but not delay fear conditioning. Additionally, post-training proteasome or translation inhibition significantly impaired trace but not delay fear memory when tested the next day. Our results further support the idea that the PFC is critical for trace but not delay fear conditioning and highlight the role of UPS-mediated degradation as critical for synaptic plasticity.”

Children undergoing laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR) may remain electively intubated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for several days following surgery to facilitate wound healing.

“The chain segment motion and charge detrapping in polyami

“The chain segment motion and charge detrapping in polyamide 610 films have been investigated by means of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. There are three current peaks (namely a, ?1, and ?2 Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil peaks) in the TSDC spectra above room temperature. a peak is attributed to a dipole relaxation by the motion of chain segments ?1 peak is caused by space charge trapped in amorphous phase and the interphase

between crystalline and amorphous phases, and ?2 peak is brought about by space charge trapped in crystalline phase. By analyzing the characteristic parameters of these peaks, it is found that annealing induces the decrease of chain segment mobility and promotes the creation

of structural traps in polyamide 610. The decrease of chain segment mobility in amorphous phase makes intensity of a peak weak and activation energy increscent. The higher the annealing temperature, the higher the degree of crystallinity, the more the charge carriers trapped in crystalline phase. So, the increase of degree of crystallinity makes intensity of ?2 peak strong and increases the stability of trapped charge CA3 molecular weight in the crystalline phase. The increase of annealing temperature makes intensity of ?1 peak strong and decreases the stability of trapped charge in the amorphous phase and interphase. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011″
“Study Design. A clinical prospective study.

Objective. To assess whether clinical and radiologic outcomes differ between anterior decompression and fusion (ADF) and laminoplasty (LAMP) in Tozasertib purchase the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Summary of Background Data. No reports to date have accurately and prospectively compared middle-term clinical outcomes after anterior and posterior decompression for CSM.

Methods. We prospectively performed LAMP (n = 50) in 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002, and ADF (n = 45) in 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, and each item of the JOA score were evaluated. For radiographic evaluation, the lordotic angle

and range of motion (ROM) at C2-C7 and residual anterior compression to the spinal cord (ACS) after LAMP on magnetic resonance imaging were investigated.

Results. Eighty-six patients (ADF n = 39; LAMP n = 47) could be followed for more than 5 years (follow-up rate 91.5%). Demographics were similar between the two groups. The mean JOA score and recovery rate in the ADF group were superior to those in the LAMP group from 2-year data collected after surgery. However, LAMP was safer and less invasive than ADF with respect to physical status and complications in the perioperative period. For individual items of the JOA score, the ADF group showed significantly more improvement of upper extremity motor function than the LAMP group (P < 0.05).

Higher maximum Epstein Barr viral (EBV) load (hazard ratio [HR]:

Higher maximum Epstein Barr viral (EBV) load (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.6, p = 0.004) and longer duration of induction

therapy (HR: 1.7, p = 0.02) were associated with increased risks of PTLD. Higher cumulative cyclosporine doses over the first year post-transplantation were associated with increased risks of PTLD (HR: 1.2 per 1 mg/kg/day equivalent, p = 0.03), but higher tacrolimus doses were not (p = 0.38). Patients on cyclosporine at 6 months post-transplantation were at higher risk of PTLD than those on tacrolimus (HR: 5.2, p = 0.003). The use of anti-viral Linsitinib supplier prophylaxis in patients with high EBV load may provide some protection (HR: 7.6 vs 15.4 with no anti-viral, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: PTLD is a major concern in pediatric heart transplant recipients and is associated

with high morbidity/mortality. Exposure to EBV and higher intensity of immunosuppression seems to be associated with increased risk. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:648-57 (C) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights VE-821 DNA Damage inhibitor reserved.”
“Crystallographically anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes were fabricated directly by one-step surfactant-assisted high energy ball milling (HEBM) of Sm17Co83 ingot powders for 5 h in heptane and oleic acid (OA) without preprocessing or further annealing. The SmCo5 nanoflakes have a strong [001] out-of-plane texture. The thickness of nanoflakes is in the range of 8-80 nm while their length is 0.5-8 mu m. The surfactant OA plays an important role in the formation of SmCo5 nanoflakes. HEBM of SmCo5 ingots in heptane without OA resulted in the formation of magnetically isotropic more or less equiaxed SmCo5 particles with a size of 2-30 mu m. Closely packed “”kebablike”" SmCo5 nanoflakes were formed by HEBM

in heptane with 15 wt % OA. HEBM in 150 wt % OA led to well-separated nanoflakes instead of the closely CH5183284 nmr packed kebablike nanostructure. This resulted in the enhanced [001] out-of-plane texture. In-plane transmission electron microscope examination showed that the SmCo5 nanoflakes were composed of grains with sizes in the range of 4-8 nm. Coercivities of about 18.0 kOe were obtained for the anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3339775]“
“In the study of metabolic networks, optimization techniques are often used to predict flux distributions, and hence, metabolic phenotype. Flux balance analysis in particular has been successful in predicting metabolic phenotypes. However, an inherent limitation of a stoichiometric approach such as flux balance analysis is that it can predict only flux distributions that result in maximal yields. Hence, previous attempts to use FBA to predict metabolic fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum failed, as this lactic acid bacterium produces lactate, even under glucose-limited chemostat conditions, where FBA predicted mixed acid fermentation as an alternative pathway leading to a higher yield.