However, definition by absence is inherently underspecified and l

However, definition by absence is inherently underspecified and leaves open questions of how this type of memory operates, its neural basis, and how it differs from explicit, declarative memory. Drawing on a variety of studies of implicit learning that have attempted to identify

the neural correlates of implicit learning using functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology, a theory of implicit memory is presented that describes it as a form of general plasticity Caspase inhibitor within processing networks that adaptively improve function via experience. Under this model, implicit memory will not appear as a single, coherent, alternative memory system but will instead be manifested as a principle of improvement from experience based on widespread selleck chemical mechanisms of cortical plasticity. The implications of this characterization for understanding the role of implicit learning in complex cognitive processes and the effects of interactions between types of memory will be discussed for examples within

and outside the psychology laboratory. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The graft-versus-leukemia effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has shown that the immune system is capable of eradicating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This knowledge, along with the identification of the target antigens against which antileukemia immune responses are directed, has provided a strong impetus for the development of antigen-targeted immunotherapy of AML. The success of any antigen-specific immunotherapeutic strategy depends critically on the choice

of target antigen. Ideal molecules for immune targeting in AML are SSR128129E those that are: (1) leukemia-specific; (2) expressed in most leukemic blasts including leukemic stem cells; (3) important for the leukemic phenotype; (4) immunogenic; and (5) clinically effective. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on AML-related tumor antigens and assess their applicability for immunotherapy against the five criteria outlined above. In this way, we aim to facilitate the selection of appropriate target antigens, a task that has become increasingly challenging given the large number of antigens identified and the rapid pace at which new targets are being discovered. The information provided in this review is intended to guide the rational design of future antigen-specific immunotherapy trials, which will hopefully lead to new antileukemia therapies with more selectivity and higher efficacy.”
“The lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused predominantly by in-frame deletion of phenylalanine 508 in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). F508 is located in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR, which functions as an ATP-gated chloride channel on the cell surface. The F508del mutation blocks CFTR export to the surface due to aberrant retention in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Preoperative indications and procedural and postimplantation outc

Preoperative indications and procedural and postimplantation outcomes were collected and analyzed. Technical success and clinical success were determined as defined by the Society of Vascular Surgery reporting standards.


Patients were predominantly male (87%) with a mean age of 77 years. The interval between the original endograft implantation to Renu treatment was 43.4 +/- 18.7 months. The indications for treatment were endoleak (n = 111), migration (n = 136), or both (n = 94). Technical success was 98.0% with two cases of intraoperative conversion and one case of persistent type IA endoleak. The median follow-up for the cohort was 45.0 months (range, 0-56 months; interquartile range, 25.0 months). Overall, 32 cases had treatment failures that IWR-1 manufacturer included at least one of the following: death (n = 5), type I/III endoleak (n = 18), graft infection (n = 1), thrombosis (n = 1), aneurysm enlargement >5 mm (n = 9), rupture (n = 4), conversion (n = 9, with 7 after 30 days), and migration (n = 1). Overall, the clinical success for the entire cohort during the follow-up period was 78.8% (119/151).


The postmarket registry data confirm that the Zenith Renu AAA Ancillary Graft can be used to treat endovascular repairs that failed due to proximal attachment failures. The salvage treatment with the Renu device had high technical success rate and resulted in clinical success in a majority of patients (78.8%). While failed endovascular repairs can be salvaged, a clinical failure in one of five patients still emphasizes the importance of patient and device selection during initial endovascular aneurysm

repair to ensure durable success. (J Vase Surg 2011;54:307-15.)”
“This study evaluated the Org 27569 effect of switching to quetiapine vs. risperidone continuation on sexual functioning in outpatients with risperidone-associated sexual dysfunction. Outpatients (n=42, age >= 18 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced risperidone-associated sexual dysfunction were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind risperidone continuation (mean dose=4.1 mg/day, S.D.=1.2) or quetiapine switch (mean dose=290.0 mg/day, S.D.=55.2) treatment. The five-item Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) assessed sexual functioning at baseline and subsequently at weeks 2, 4 and 6. A mixed-model analysis of repeated measures included gender and baseline ASEX and PANSS scores as covariates. There was no significant Treatment Group effect for ASEX total scores and ASEX sub-items, and no significant Treatment Group X Period interaction for ASEX total scores and ASEX sub-items. Treatment Group effects were not significantly different in any of the prospective weeks for ASEX total scores and ASEX sub-items.

Methods and Results: Wild-type (WT) mice and


Methods and Results: Wild-type (WT) mice and

tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG) knockout (KO) mice received the nitric oxide inhibitor N omega- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) to induce hypertension. After 1 week, mesenteric arteries from hypertensive WT mice showed a smaller lumen diameter (-6.9 +/- 2.0%, p = 0.024) and a larger wall-to-lumen ratio (11.8 +/- 3.5%, p = 0.012) than controls, Tozasertib mouse whereas inward remodeling was absent in hypertensive tTG KO mice. After 3 weeks, the wall-to-lumen ratio was increased in WT (20.8 +/- 4.8%, p = 0.005) but less so in tTG KO mice (11.7 +/- 4.6%, p = 0.026), and wall stress was normalized in WT but not in tTG KO mice. L-NAME did not influence expression of tTG EPZ015938 supplier or an alternative transglutaminase, coagulation factor XIII (FXIII).

Suppression of FXIII by macrophage depletion was associated with increased tTG in the presence of L-NAME. L-NAME treatment decreased erythrocyte deformability in the WT mice (-15.3% at 30 dynes/cm(2), p = 0.014) but not in the tTG KO mice. Conclusion: Transglutaminases are involved in small artery inward remodeling and erythrocyte stiffening associated with nitric oxide inhibition-related hypertension.”
“A 23- year- old woman with known polycystic ovary syndrome visits her family physician. She has taken oral contraceptive pills in the past but did not tolerate them and is not currently receiving any treatment. She has three or four menstrual periods per year and is not interested in becoming pregnant now, but she will be getting married in a year. She has heard that the polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with diabetes and is concerned because both her mother and father have type 2 diabetes. Her body-mass index ( the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is 32, her waist circumference is 38 in. ( 96.5 cm), her serum total testosterone level is elevated at 0.9 ng per milliliter ( 90 ng per deciliter, or 2.9

nmol per liter), her plasma high- density lipoprotein cholesterol level is 35 mg per deciliter ( 0.9 mmol per liter), and her triglyceride level is 190 mg per deciliter ( 2.1 mmol per liter). Her serum glucose level 2 hours after the ingestion of 75 g of dextrose is 138 mg per deciliter ( 7.7 mmol per liter). medroxyprogesterone The physician wonders whether treatment with metformin would be beneficial and refers the patient to an endocrinologist.”
“Background: The exposure of tissue factor (TF) at the site of injury or trauma is a rapid process that leads to the initiation of blood coagulation as well as homeostatic processes giving rise to vascular repair. Aims and Methods: By exposing human endothelial cells to combinations of exogenous TF and factor VIIa (FVIIa) in serum-free medium, the influence of TF concentrations on cellular proliferation and apoptosis was investigated.

Where and how such electromagnetic energy conversion occurs has b

Where and how such electromagnetic energy conversion occurs has been unclear. Using a conjunction between

eight spacecraft, we show that this conversion takes place within fronts of recently reconnected magnetic flux, predominantly at 1- to 10-electron inertial length scale, intense electrical current sheets (tens to hundreds of nanoamperes per square meter). Launched continually during intervals of geomagnetic activity, these reconnection outflow flux fronts convert similar to 10 to 100 gigawatts per square Earth radius of power, consistent with local magnetic flux transport, and a few times 10(15) Caspase Inhibitor VI chemical structure joules of magnetic energy, consistent with global magnetotail flux reduction.”
“Circadian clocks have evolved to regulate physiologic and behavioral rhythms in anticipation of changes in the environment. Although the molecular clock is present in innate immune cells, its role in monocyte homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we report that Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes exhibit diurnal variation, which controls their trafficking to sites of inflammation. This cyclic pattern of trafficking confers protection against Listeria monocytogenes and is regulated by the repressive activity of the circadian gene Bmal1. Accordingly, myeloid cell-specific deletion of Bmal1 induces expression of monocyte-attracting chemokines and disrupts rhythmic

cycling of Ly6C(hi) monocytes, predisposing mice to development of pathologies associated with acute and chronic inflammation. These findings have unveiled a critical role for BMAL1 selleck chemical in controlling the diurnal rhythms in Ly6C(hi) Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase monocyte numbers.”
“Launched over 35 years ago, Voyagers 1 and 2 are on an epic journey outward from the Sun

to reach the boundary between the solar plasma and the much cooler interstellar medium. The boundary, called the heliopause, is expected to be marked by a large increase in plasma density, from about 0.002 per cubic centimeter (cm(-3)) in the outer heliosphere, to about 0.1 cm(-3) in the interstellar medium. On 9 April 2013, the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument began detecting locally generated electron plasma oscillations at a frequency of about 2.6 kilohertz. This oscillation frequency corresponds to an electron density of about 0.08 cm(-3), very close to the value expected in the interstellar medium. These and other observations provide strong evidence that Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma.”
“The coolest known brown dwarfs are our best analogs to extrasolar gas-giant planets. The prolific detections of such cold substellar objects in the past 2 years have spurred intensive follow-up, but the lack of accurate distances is a key gap in our understanding. We present a large sample of precise distances based on homogeneous mid-infrared astrometry that robustly establishes absolute fluxes, luminosities, and temperatures.

This domain contains seven tandem leucine-rich repeats, of which

This domain contains seven tandem leucine-rich repeats, of which each contribute a single beta-strand that forms a continuous beta-sheet with neighboring repeats, and an N-terminal alpha-helical capping motif. Despite its modular structure, InlB folds in an equilibrium two-state manner, as reflected by the identical thermodynamic parameters obtained by monitoring its sigmoidal urea- induced unfolding transition by different spectroscopic probes. Although equilibrium two-state folding is common in alpha-helical repeat proteins, to date, InlB is the only beta- sheet-containing repeat protein for which this behavior is observed. Surprisingly, unlike other repeat proteins exhibiting

equilibrium two-state folding, InlB also Pevonedistat folds by a simple two-state kinetic mechanism lacking intermediates, aside from the effects PARP inhibitor of prolyl isomerization on the denatured state. However, like other repeat proteins, InlB also folds significantly more

slowly than expected from contact order. When plotted against urea, the rate constants for the fast refolding and single unfolding phases constitute a linear chevron that, when fitted with a kinetic two-state model, yields thermodynamic parameters matching those observed for equilibrium folding. Based on these kinetic parameters, the transition state is estimated to comprise 40% of the total surface area buried upon folding, indicating that a large fraction of the native contacts are formed in the rate-limiting step to folding.”
“Although serotonergic system has been classically implicated in mood modulation, there has been relatively little study on the relationship between this system and thyroid hormones (TH) economy in stress models. When TH are studied, the effects of stress on thyroid function seems to be complex and depend on the

kind and time of stress which counts for the elusiveness of mechanisms underlying changes in TH economy. Herein, we hypothesized that serum TH are affected in a time-dependent fashion after repeated social stressful stimuli and serotonergic system is implicated MG-132 price in these changes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible alterations in thyroid hormone economy and type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinase activity in a model of social defeat stress. Thereafter, we tested the responsiveness of these changes to fluoxetine treatment. Both short (STS) and a long-term (LTS) stress were performed. Blood samples were drawn just before and 1 (STS) or 4 and 8 weeks (LTS) after the beginning of stress to assess serum 14, 13 and corticosterone. Deiodinases activity was assessed at the end of each protocol. Stress-induced behavior studied in open field arena and hypercorticosteronemia were mainly observed in LTS (week 4). Stress-induced behavior was associated to hypothyroidism which occurred before, since week 1 in stressed group.

Brain uptake of radioactivity was decreased in a dose-dependent m

Brain uptake of radioactivity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with increasing amounts of URB694, demonstrating that binding was saturable. Pretreatment with the well-characterised FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced binding in all brain regions by 70-80%. Homogenised brain extraction experiments demonstrated unequivocally that [C-11]CURB was irreversibly bound to FAAH.

Conclusions: The title radiotracer demonstrates favourable properties such as good brain uptake, regional heterogeneity and specificity of binding based on ex vivo biodistribution studies in conscious

rat brain. [C-11]CURB represents a highly promising radiotracer for the imaging of FAAH using PET. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”


is difficult to determine the effects of bactericidal compounds against bacteria in a biofilm because classical see more procedures for determining cell viability require several working days, multiple complicated steps and are frequently only applicable to cells in suspension. We attempt to develop a compact, inexpensive and versatile system to measure directly the extent of biofilm formation from water systems and to determine the viability of respiring bacteria in high surface biofilms.

Methods and Results:

It has been reported that the reduction of tetrazolium sodium salts, such as XTT (sodium 3,3′-[1-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-3,4-tetrazolium]Bis(4-methoxy)-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic selleck compound acid hydrate), during active bacterial metabolism can be incorporated

into a colorimetric method for quantifying cell viability. XTT is reduced to a soluble formazan compound during bacterial aerobic metabolism such that the amount of formazan generated is proportional to the bacterial biomass.


We show here, for the first time, that this colorimetric approach can be used to determine LY294002 the metabolic activity of adherent aerobic bacteria in a biofilm as a measure of cell viability. This technique has been used to estimate viability and proliferation of bacteria in suspension, but this is the first application to microbial communities in a real undisturbed biofilm.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

This simple new system can be used to evaluate the complex biofilm community without separating the bacteria from their support. Thus, the results obtained by this practice may be more representative of the circumstances in a natural system, opening the possibility to multiple potential applications.”
“Phenylalkanols such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol (h-tyrosol), which possess antioxidant and anticancer properties, were phosphatidylated by phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation. After a 24-hour reaction of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and tyrosol with PLD, a new product was detected by TLC and identified to phosphatidyl-tyrosol by high-resolution MS and NMR analyses.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Australia’s Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies AZD1080 purchase were 16.9,

6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among 3-MA concentration the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only,

with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute

the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, Adenosine triphosphate in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS. Kidney International (2012) 82, 1321-1331; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.307; published online 29 August 2012″
“Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays a key role in B cell receptor signaling and is considered a promising drug target for lymphoma and inflammatory diseases. We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of BTK kinase domain in complex with six inhibitors from distinct chemical classes. Five different BTK protein conformations are stabilized by the bound inhibitors, providing insights into the structural flexibility of the Gly-rich loop, helix C, the DFG sequence, and activation loop. The conformational changes occur independent of activation loop phosphorylation and do not correlate with the structurally unchanged WEI motif in the Src homology 2-kinase domain linker. Two novel activation loop conformations and an atypical DFG conformation are observed representing unique inactive states of BTK.

We explored the direct effects on learning and memory of single a

We explored the direct effects on learning and memory of single and repeated administration of almorexant in rats.

Following administration of high doses of almorexant (300 mg/kg, p.o.), scopolamine (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.), combination almorexant-scopolamine, or vehicle alone,

rats were trained on a Morris water maze spatial navigation task, or on a passive avoidance task.

Rats treated with almorexant learned the spatial navigation task with similar efficacy as vehicle-treated animals. After 4 days, almorexant-but not vehicle-treated rats had established spatial memory; after 8 days, spatial memory had been established in both vehicle-and almorexant-treated selleck products rats. Scopolamine-treated rats failed to learn the spatial task. Both vehicle-and almorexant-but not scopolamine-treated rats demonstrated passive avoidance learning. Almorexant

did not ameliorate scopolamine-induced impairment of learning in either task.

Rats treated with almorexant are fully capable of spatial and avoidance learning.”
“Putative dopaminergic (pDAergic) ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons have an important role in alcohol addiction. Acute ethanol increases the activity of pDAergic neurons, and withdrawal from repeated ethanol administration produces a decreased sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons to GABA. Recent studies show that behavioral changes induced by chronic alcohol are reversed by inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Whether HDAC-induced histone modifications regulate changes in GABA sensitivity of VTA pDAergic neurons during withdrawal is unknown. Here, we investigated modulation of withdrawal-induced AC220 purchase changes in GABA sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons by HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), and also measured the levels of HDAC2, histone (H3-K9) acetylation, and GABA-A alpha 1 receptor (GABA (A-alpha 1) R) subunit in VTA during ethanol withdrawal. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with either ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline twice daily for 3 weeks. In recordings from pDAergic VTA neurons in brain slices from ethanol-withdrawn mice, sensitivity to GABA Oxaprozin (50-500 mu M) was reduced. In brain slices from ethanol-withdrawn mice

incubated with the HDACi SAHA (vorinostat) or trichostatin A (TSA) for 2 h, the hyposensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons to GABA was significantly attenuated. There was no effect of TSA or SAHA on GABA sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons from saline-treated mice. In addition, ethanol withdrawal was associated with an increase in levels of HDAC2 and a decrease in histone (H3-K9) acetylation and levels of GABA (A-alpha 1) R subunits in the VTA. Therefore, blockade of upregulation of HDAC2 by HDACi normalizes GABA hyposensitivity of pDAergic neurons developed during withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, which suggests the possibility that inhibition of HDACs can reverse ethanol-induced neuroadaptational changes in reward circuitry.

We report here the discovery of novel viral sequences in human se

We report here the discovery of novel viral sequences in human serum and sewage which are clearly related to the asfarvirus family but highly divergent from ASFV. Detection of these sequences suggests that greater genetic diversity may exist among asfarviruses than previously thought and raises the

possibility that human infection by asfarviruses may occur.”
“We recently developed a novel targeting AZD6738 purchase Sindbis virus envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vector, 2.2ZZ, which acquires specific transduction capacity by antibody conjugation and binding with specific antigens on the surface of targeted cells. Here we characterize the virological properties of this vector by examining its targeting to CD4 antigen. Our results show that entry is dependent on CD4 cell surface density and occurs via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of infection by a new viral vector with combined properties of Sindbis virus and lentiviruses and infectivity conferred buy Alvespimycin by monoclonal antibody-ligand interactions.”
“The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpu enhances virus particle

release by counteracting a host factor that retains virions at the surfaces of infected cells. It was recently demonstrated that cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 release in a Vpu-dependent manner. Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) was also proposed to be involved in this process. We investigated whether CAML is involved in cell surface expression of Tetherin. Here, we show that CAML overexpression in

permissive Cos-7 cells or CAML depletion in restrictive HeLa cells has no effect on HIV-1 release or on Tetherin surface expression, indicating that CAML is not required for Tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release.”
“Murine norovirus (MNV) is a highly infectious but generally nonpathogenic agent that is commonly found in research mouse colonies in both North America and Europe. In the present study, the effects of acute and chronic infections with MNV on immune responses and recovery from concurrent Friend virus (FV) infections were investigated. No significant differences in T-cell or NK-cell responses, FV-neutralizing antibody selleck inhibitor responses, or long-term recovery from FV infection were observed. We conclude that concurrent MNV infections had no major impacts on FV infections.”
“Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILR alpha) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Its binding to a cellular ligand, CD99, depends on the presence of sialylated O-linked glycans on CD99. Glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to PILR alpha, and this association is involved in HSV-1 infection.

“OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and impact of an intr

“OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and impact of an intracerebral hematoma (ICH) on treatment and outcome in patients with aneurysmal Subarachnoid hemorrhage.

METHODS: Data of 585 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

from June 1999 to December 2005 were prospectively entered in a database. ICH was diagnosed and size was measured by computed tomographic scan before aneurysm occlusion. Fifty patients (8.5%) presented with an ICH larger than 50 cm(3). Baf-A1 supplier The treatment decision (coil, clip, or hematoma evacuation) was based on an interdisciplinary approach. Patients were stratified into good (Hunt and Hess Grades I-III) versus poor (Hunt and Hess Grades IV and V) grade, and outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale at 6 months.

RESULTS: Overall, 358 patients presented in good grade, with 4 of them having ICH (1.1%); and

227 patients presented in poor grade, with 46 of them having ICH (20.3%, P < 0.01). In good-grade patients with an ICH (n = 4), a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) was achieved in 1 patient (25%), and in 246 patients (75%) without an ICH (P = 0.053; odds ratio, 0.11). A favorable outcome was achieved in 5 poor-grade patients (12.8%) with an ICH and in 40 patients (23.7%) without an ICH (P = 0.19; odds ratio, 0.47). Time to treatment was significantly shorter in patients with an ICH than without an ICH (median, MM-102 7 versus 26 h; P < 0.001) and shortest in patients with favorable outcome (3.5 hours; P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: The current data confirm that the presence of an ICH is a predictor of unfavorable outcome. However, despite large ICHs, a significant number of patients have a good outcome. To achieve a favorable outcome, ultra-early treatment with hematoma evacuation and aneurysm obliteration seems to be mandatory.”
“Purpose: It has been shown that the incidence of de novo vesicoureteral Thiamet G reflux following unilateral endoscopic correction is low and does not

justify prophylactic injection into the nonrefluxing ureter. We analyzed whether we should routinely treat each ureter in patients with a history of bilateral vesicoureteral reflux in whom reflux previously disappeared spontaneously on 1 side.

Materials and Methods: Between 1991 and 2005, 458 children underwent endoscopic correction of unilateral vesicoureteral reflux. Of the children 15 with bilateral vesicoureteral reflux at the beginning of followup showed spontaneous reflux resolution on 1 side. Resolved reflux was grade II to IV in 5, 8 and 2 children, respectively. Mean time to reflux resolution was 3.3 years (range 2 to 5). Reflux corrected endoscopically was grade II to IV in 1, 6 and 8 children, respectively. All children were female and age at endoscopic correction was 2 to 16 years. None of the children had voiding dysfunction at the time of injection. Injection was performed routinely only into the refluxing ureter.