Porcine livers were recovered according to standard multiorgan pr

Porcine livers were recovered according to standard multiorgan procurement protocol. Control livers were cold stored in histidine tryptophan ketoglutarate solution

for 10 h (cold storage [CS]; n = 6) at 4 degrees C. In the treatment group (n = 6), livers were additionally subjected to hypothermic reconditioning (HR) by gaseous oxygen persufflation via the caval vein for 2 h before transplantation. Viability was assessed by orthotopic liver transplantation and 1 week follow-up. HR significantly improved pretransplant energy charge and initial graft function after transplantation. One week survival after CS was 0% whereas five of six pigs (83%) survived in the HR group. At that time, coagulation parameters were in the normal range and histological analysis disclosed healthy liver tissue with normal trabecular architecture in the treated grafts. Molecular analyses identify the prevention of ischemia-induced decline SNS-032 purchase of cellular autophagy and mitigation of innate immune machinery (high-mobility group protein B1, interferon-beta) as operative mechanisms among the protective effects provided by HR.”
“This paper provides an analytical method for evaluating the performance of upper layer forward error correction (FEC), when PLX4032 supplier used together with interleaving

on land mobile satellite channels, in terms of residual (after decoding) packet loss rate (PLR). In addition, the analysis highlights the overheads introduced by this technique, which depend on the channel statistics, in terms GSK923295 of additional packet delivery delay, bandwidth consumption, and computation power required. We show why the interleaver is mandatory in some environments, due to the severe disruptive characteristics of the channel, according to measurement campaigns promoted by the European Space Agency. This analysis provides the expression of the residual PLR when systematic

FEC coding blocks are interleaved at the packet level (i.e., when a cyclic redundancy check and a sequence number identify a correct data unit). This method can be employed for the performance evaluation of recent and future mobile communication systems that take advantage of upper layer FEC and interleaving techniques.”
“Glaucomatous optic atrophy is the result of both primary and secondary glaucomas leading to functional defects. Loss of axons and ganglion cells leads to a specific atrophy of the optic nerve head. Increased cup size and depth with loss of neuroretinal rim tissue are accompanied by changes of the retinal vessels and juxtapapillary retinal pigment epithelium. Changes of the retinal nerve fibre layer, caused by ganglion cell loss may be earliest signs of glaucomatous atrophy. The marked variability of optic disc size and form may influence the quality of ophthalmoscopic evaluation in extreme variants.

46%) were significantly (P<0 05) higher in the T-3 group By c

46%) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the T-3 group. By contrast, the quantities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were significantly (P<0.05) lower (48.84%, 10.38% and 22.08%, respectively) this website in the T-3 group and higher in the T-1 (control) and T-2 groups.\n\nFrom this study,

it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of VE to the basal diet has no effect on the production performance but supplementation of a higher level of VE (300 IU kg(-1) diet) improved the biochemical characteristics of the foam and moderate levels of VE (150 IU kg(-1) diet) improved the foam production of male Japanese quail. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We have investigated a possible method of synthesizing carbon-free, nano-silicon nitride silicon carbide (Si3N4/SiC) powders from the waste silica fume for the first time, using the integrated mechanical and thermal activation (IMTA) process. This novel process results in the formation of nano-Si3N4/SiC powders at 1465 degrees C with crystallite sizes as small as 45 nm. In order to synthesize carbon-free

nano-Si3N4/SiC powders, two different approaches, one using the H-2 gas and the other using air, have been studied for their effectiveness in removing the free carbon present. It is found that the H-2 treatment is not very effective although both Si3N4 and SiC are stable during the H-2 treatment. In contrast, removing the free carbon using air is effective, and the limited oxidation INCB024360 of nano-Si3N4 and SiC can be achieved if the air treatment is terminated soon after the free carbon is eliminated. This study has provided a clear pathway and understanding for effectively synthesizing

carbon-free, nano-Si3N4/SiC powders from the silica fume. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Scintillation characteristics such as the pulse height, energy resolution, and decay time of single crystals of Tl-doped NaI (Tl:NaI), Ce-doped Lu2SiO5 (Ce:LSO), Ce-doped YAlO3 (Ce:YAP), Ce-doped Gd-3(Al,Ga)(5)O-12 (Ce:GAGG), Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), undoped LuAG, and Ce-doped Y3Al5O12 (Ce:YAG) transparent ceramics were compared at 25-150 degrees C to simulate well AZD9291 chemical structure logging conditions. For increasing temperature, the light output of the scintillators decreased, mostly because of thermal quenching. Among these samples, Pr:LuAG demonstrated the highest scintillation performance at 150 degrees C. (C) 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“The effect was assessed of including licuri and castor oils in the diet on the production and chemical composition of milk from goats and the economic viability of the diets. Crossbred Moxoto goats in a 5 x 5 Latin square design were used with two replications consisting of five diets: a control treatment without supplementary oil (control), and the others with 3% or 5% licuri or castor oil.

The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user int

The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available.\n\nConclusion: PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed

3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available via the web-interface utilizing the search engine and can be accessed at http://polysac3db.cermav.cnrs.fr.”
“On the basis of an online sampling microscopy method, the morphological evolution of a metallocene polyethylene/metallocene ethylene-propylene copolymer system (80/20 vol %) across various mixing selleck kinase inhibitor regimes was investigated and treated statistically. The size distributions of

the minor-phase metallocene ethylene-propylene (mEP) droplets were described with principles of irreversible thermodynamics. Such an approach allowed us to find two superimposed statistical ensembles involving primary (broken) and secondary (coalesced) mEP particles. The mean size and relative number of both broken and coalesced mEP particles were calculated. The evolution of these characteristics Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration across melt mixing, static coalescence, and flow-driven coalescence was analyzed. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3421-3431, 2013″
“Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is a hybrid imaging modality that combines the advantages of optical and ultrasound imaging. Most existing reconstruction algorithms for OAT assume that the ultrasound transducers employed to record the measurement data are point-like. When transducers with large detecting

areas and/or compact measurement geometries are utilized, this assumption can result in conspicuous image blurring and distortions in the reconstructed images. In this work, a new OAT imaging model that incorporates the spatial and temporal responses of an ultrasound transducer is introduced. A discrete form of the imaging model is implemented and its numerical properties are LGX818 datasheet investigated. We demonstrate that use of the imaging model in an iterative reconstruction method can improve the spatial resolution of the optoacoustic images as compared to those reconstructed assuming point-like ultrasound transducers.”
“Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. A 3-month-old boy is reported who developed ADEM a week after full recovery from pertussis. MRI detected a high-intensity lesion extending from the pons to the mesencephalon, compatible with ADEM.

Results About 249 bp of amplicon for codon 17 and about 200

\n\nResults. About 249 bp of amplicon for codon 17 and about 200 bp of amplicon for codon 26 were successfully amplified. No mutations were observed. Analyzed

embryos were not transferred back to patients because the embryos used as samples were wasted embryos.\n\nConclusions. Compared to other approaches for prenatal diagnosis, PGD is rapid and suitable as a noninvasive clinical tool for identifying genetic disorders for the purpose of reducing selective miscarriages and moral dilemmas. We opine that DNA extraction and amplification can be successfully performed by using single-cell PCR to diagnose genetic diseases before pregnancy. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 IMSS Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Archives of Medical Research. WH-4-023 All rights reserved.”
“Increasing evidence indicates a role for regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the immune response and in autoimmune diseases, but the role of Tregs and cytokines in autoimmune hepatic diseases remains largely unclear and controversial, especially in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Selleckchem CHIR98014 This study was undertaken to investigate Tregs and different cytokines in the liver and peripheral blood of PBC patients. We found that these patients

demonstrated a reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells but elevated CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4(+) T cells. The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in PBMCs was negatively correlated with elevated plasma interferon (IFN)-gamma levels. A liver-specific analysis showed that the frequency of Foxp3(+) Tregs, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 and IFN-gamma were increased

in PBC patients. Our findings suggest that an imbalance between CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs and cytotoxic cytokines plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PBC while the role of Foxp3 needs further investigation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2010) 7, 485-490; doi: 10.1038/cmi.2010.40; published online 23 August 2010″
“Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of corneal cross-linking Taselisib (CXL) in 2 cases of bullous keratopathy combined with corneal ulcer.\n\nMethods: Two patients (2 eyes) were recruited for the sake of the study. Both suffered from bullous keratopathy and presented a gradually deteriorating, vision-threatening, central corneal ulcer, despite intense local antibiotic therapy. The same surgical procedure was performed in both eyes. De-epithelialization of the affected corneas was accompanied by UV-A cross-linking and finally by the application of a therapeutic contact lens. Local antibiotic therapy was resumed after the procedure.\n\nResults: Within 24 hours of the treatment, both patients reported significant subjective improvement of their visual acuity and ocular discomfort.

Results: We describe a novel tool, called Lepidoptera-MAP (Le

\n\nResults: We describe a novel tool, called Lepidoptera-MAP (Lep-MAP), for constructing accurate linkage maps with ultradense genome-wide SNP data. Lep-MAP is fast and memory efficient and learn more largely automated, requiring minimal user interaction. It uses simultaneously data on multiple outbred families and can increase linkage map accuracy by taking into account achiasmatic meiosis, a special

feature of Lepidoptera and some other taxa with no recombination in one sex (no recombination in females in Lepidoptera). We demonstrate that Lep-MAP outperforms other methods on real and simulated data. We construct a genome-wide linkage map of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) with over 40 000 SNPs. The data were generated with a novel in-house SOLiD restriction site-associated

DNA tag sequencing protocol, which is described in the online supplementary material.”
“Sanitary sewer systems are fundamental IPI-145 mouse and expensive facilities for controlling water pollution. Optimizing sewer design is a difficult task due to its associated hydraulic and mathematical complexities. Therefore, a genetic algorithm (GA) based approach has been developed. A set of diameters for all pipe segments in a sewer system is regarded as a chromosome for the proposed GA model. Hydraulic and topographical constraints are adopted in order to eliminate inappropriate chromosomes, thereby improving computational efficiency. To improve the solvability of the proposed model, the nonlinear cost optimization model is approximated and transformed

into a quadratic programming (QP) model. The system cost, pipe slopes, and pipe buried depths of each generated chromosome are determined using the QP model. A sewer design problem cited in literature has been solved using the GA-QP model. The solution obtained from the GA model is comparable to that produced by the discrete differential dynamic programming approach. Finally, several near-optimum Lazertinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor designs produced using the modeling to generate alternative approach are discussed and compared for improving the final design decision.”
“A series of new mono- and bis-1,2,3-triazole derivatives of 2-benzimidazolethiol were synthesized by three-component copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The desired heterocycles were obtained in good yields and fully characterized. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of new heterocyclic compounds was investigated on steel grade API 5L X52 in 1 M HCl using electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that these new organic compounds show promising inhibition properties for the corrosion of steel in acidic media.

Mild to moderate asymptomatic hyperglycemia is observed with figi

Mild to moderate asymptomatic hyperglycemia is observed with figitumumab therapy, but it is generally manageable and well tolerated. Because of its extended half-life and absence of dose-limiting toxicity and hypersensitivity, figitumumab compares well to other compounds in its class. Furthermore,

recent data suggest that figitumumab might be active in combination with platinum doublets for the treatment of chemotherapy-naive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This article discusses the results to date of the figitumumab development program and the rationale for further testing of this agent as a therapeutic Flavopiridol option for the treatment of patients with NSCLC.”
“Recent studies have implicated glial cells in modulation of synaptic transmission, so it is plausible that glial cells may have a functional role in the hyperexcitability characteristic of epilepsy. Indeed, alterations in distinct

astrocyte membrane channels, receptors, and transporters have all been associated with the epileptic state. This review focuses on the potential roles of the glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in modulation of brain excitability and in epilepsy. We will review studies of mice lacking AQP4 (Aqp4-/- mice) or a-syntrophin (an AQP4 anchoring protein) and discuss the available human studies demonstrating alterations of AQP4 in human epilepsy tissue specimens. We will conclude with new studies of AQP4 regulation and discuss the potential role of AQP4 in the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis). While many questions remain unanswered, selleck compound the available data indicate that AQP4 and its molecular partners may represent important new therapeutic targets. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Objective. Altered calcium homeostasis has been linked to increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques. We aimed to investigate whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin

D (25(OH) D) and serum calcium are associated with IMT and plaques in nonsmoking population. Methods. Ultrasound of the right carotid artery with the measurements of IMT and plaques was performed AZD2014 in vitro in 4194 nonsmoking subjects with available measurements of serum 25(OH) D and total calcium. Linear regression was applied to study the linear relationships between variables. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of increased IMT and total plaque area (TPA), adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol. Results. There was no significant linear relationship between mean IMT, TPA, and either serum 25(OH) D or total serum calcium. One SD increase in serum 25(OH) D was independently associated with increased odds of being in the highest quartile of IMT in men (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12, 1.51). In women, 1 SD increase in serum 25(OH) D was independently associated with increased risk of being in the upper tertile of TPA (OR 1.

It is important to highlight that urinary stones containing trace

It is important to highlight that urinary stones containing trace elements could be considered a marker of environmental pollution.\n\nA large set of urinary stones (48), collected among the GDC-0068 purchase Basilicata (southern Italy) inhabitants, was

analysed by AAS and ICP for the content of specific chemical elements that were either involved in the crystallisation process of kidney stones (Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) or which were potentially toxic (Pb, Cr).\n\nThree main findings emerge from the results:\n\n(1) Most urinary stones had high concentrations of elements such as K, Cu and Mg and a low content of Fe when compared to the results of previous studies.\n\n(2) Significant amounts were found in inorganic phases (calcium oxalate and phosphates), whereas only the Zn content was high in organic phases (uric acid and cystine).\n\n(3) Among calcium-based stones, those that were calcium phosphate contained greater amounts of trace elements than those that were calcium-oxalate. Among the calcium oxalate

stones, weddellite retained more trace elements than whewellite.\n\nFurthermore, the results showed that the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cr were greater than that of ingested from a standard diet. Consequently, varying amounts of these elements may have been attributed to their enrichment in the diet of the inhabitants of polluted areas. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Atmospheric air contains various trace impurities which include oxides of nitrogen, carbon, sulphur, and light hydrocarbons. AG-014699 order Prior to cryogenic distillation of air to produce oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, these trace impurities have to be removed since many of these compounds constitute a safety hazard in the plant. In this check details study, adsorption has

been considered for their removal and adsorption behavior of ethylene, acetylene, nitrous oxide, acetonitrile, methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol have been studied in the Henry’s Law low concentration region with several different adsorbents. Adsorption equilibrium parameters have been determined with samples of Alcan pure alumina, Alcan alumina/13X composites Actiguard 600/650PC, CABSORB Chabazite, Ceca13X, and Clinoptilolite by using the concentration pulse chromatographic technique. Heat of adsorption values and van’t Hoff plots have been presented.”
“My former research focused on silk fibroin gene transcription. The in vivo transcription initiation site of the fibroin gene, which is similar to the site corresponding to the 5′-terminal of mature fibroin mRNA, was determined. By developing a cell-free transcription system prepared from silk glands, it was found that the upstream region of the fibroin gene is responsible for efficient transcription initiation, which has enhancer-like features.

Deficits in emotion recognition may be present before the full ex

Deficits in emotion recognition may be present before the full expression of psychotic illness, and may contribute to the social cognition

and social functioning deficits apparent in emerging FK506 purchase psychotic disorders.”
“Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) metabolism. There is accumulating evidence showing that under stress conditions such as ER stress, ROS production is increased via enzymes of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family, especially via the Nox2 and Nox4 isoforms, which are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular and renal disease, and it has a complex pathophysiology involving the heart, kidney, brain, vessels, and immune system. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway that has prosurvival and proapoptotic components. Recent Advances: Here, we summarize the evidence regarding

the association of Nox enzymes and ER stress, and its potential contribution in the setting of hypertension, including the role of other conditions that can lead to hypertension (e.g., insulin resistance and diabetes). Critical Issues: A better understanding of this association is currently of great interest, as it will provide further insights into the cellular mechanisms that can drive the ER stress-induced adaptive versus maladaptive pathways linked to hypertension GSK1838705A solubility dmso and other cardiovascular conditions. More needs to be learnt about the precise signaling regulation of Nox(es) and ER stress in the cardiovascular system. Future Directions: The development of specific approaches that target individual Nox isoforms and the UPR signaling pathway may be important for the achievement of therapeutic

efficacy in hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 121-134.”
“Objective: Pathological gambling is associated with elevated proportions of nicotine dependence, and tobacco smoking in pathological gamblers has been associated with increased problem-gambling severity. This study examined the addition of N-acetylcysteine to imaginal desensitization in adults with co-occurring nicotine dependence and pathological gambling. Method: Twenty-eight individuals with co-occurring DSM-IV nicotine dependence and pathological gambling who were receiving behavioral therapy were recruited from find more December 2009 to February 2012 and randomized to augmentation with N-acetylcysteine or placebo in an 12-week, double-blind trial. Subjects were assessed with measures of nicotine and gambling severity and followed for 3 months after treatment. The primary outcomes were the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and the pathological gambling adaptation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Results: During the first 6 weeks, there was a significant benefit of N-acetylcysteine treatment versus placebo on Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence total scores (t = -2.224; P = .031).

(C) 2012 IBRO Published by Elsevier

Ltd All rights rese

(C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The true association between breast cancer and vitamin D is currently under investigation. We compared serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in women with benign and malignant breast masses and controls. Materials and Methods: Levels of vitamin D were measured by electrochemiluminescense. Serum levels >35 ng/ml, 25-35 ng/ml, 12.5-25 ng/ml and <12.5 ng/ml were considered click here as normal, mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: Overall, 364 women were included in the control, 172 in the benign and 136 in the malignant groups. The median serum vitamin D level was significantly lower in breast cancers than controls. Levels were also lower in malignant than benign cases and in benign cases than controls although statistically non-significant. Conclusions: Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that severe vitamin D deficiency causes

a three-fold increase in the risk of breast cancer while this was not the case for moderate and mild deficiency.”
“Background: Candidate genes for color pattern formation in butterfly wings have been known based on gene expression patterns since the 1990s, but their functions remain elusive due to a lack of a functional assay. Several methods of transferring and expressing a foreign gene in butterfly wings have been reported, but they have suffered from low success rates or low expression levels. Here, we developed a simple, practical method to efficiently AZD6094 solubility dmso deliver and express a foreign gene using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo.\n\nResults:

A recombinant baculovirus containing a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into pupae of the blue pansy butterfly Junonia orithya (Nymphalidae). GFP fluorescence was detected in the pupal wings and other body parts of the injected individuals three to five days post-injection at various degrees of fluorescence. We obtained a high GFP expression rate at relatively high virus titers, but it was associated with pupal death before color pattern formation in wings. To reduce the high mortality rate caused by the baculovirus treatment, we administered an anti-gp64 antibody, which was raised against baculovirus coat protein gp64, to infected pupae after the baculovirus injection. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/blz945.html This treatment greatly reduced the mortality rate of the infected pupae. GFP fluorescence was observed in pupal and adult wings and other body parts of the antibody-treated individuals at various degrees of fluorescence. Importantly, we obtained completely developed wings with a normal color pattern, in which fluorescent signals originated directly from scales or the basal membrane after the removal of scales. GFP fluorescence in wing tissues spatially coincided with anti-GFP antibody staining, confirming that the fluorescent signals originated from the expressed GFP molecules.

All the IgA anti-tTG positive patients were simultaneously positi

All the IgA anti-tTG positive patients were simultaneously positive for IgA EMA. The histological findings (Marsh III) confirmed CD in nine of the remaining 17 patients who underwent endoscopy and biopsy – prevalence rate of 9.2%. All Marsh III patients were IgA EMA positive, but four Marsh III patients were IgA anti-tTG negative.\n\nConclusion DS Portuguese patients have a high CD prevalence rate. This study supports that, Baf-A1 in vitro in our population, the current recommendations for CD screening in

DS patients should be implemented and screening must be EMA based. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:868-871 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Chitosan-polycaprolactone (CH-PCL) copolymers with various PCL percentages less than 45 wt% were synthesized. Different CH-PCLs were respectively blended with Type-II collagen at prescribed ratios to fabricate a type of layered porous scaffolds with some biomimetic features

while using sodium tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker. The compositions of different layers inside scaffolds were designed in a way so that from the top layer to the bottom layer collagen content changed in a degressive trend contrary to that of chitosan. A combinatorial processing technique involving adjustable temperature gradients, collimated photothermal heating and freeze-drying was used to construct desired microstructures of scaffolds. selleck The resultant scaffolds had highly interconnected

porous layers with a layer thickness of around 1 mm and porous interface zones without visual clefts. Results obtained from SEM observations and measurements of pore parameters and swelling properties as well as mechanical examinations confirmed that graded average pore-size and porosity, gradient swelling index and oriented compressive modulus for certain scaffolds were synchronously achieved. In addition, certain evaluations of cell-scaffold constructs indicated that the achieved scaffolds were able to well support Y-27632 clinical trial the growth of seeded chondrocytes. The optimized collagen/CH-PCL scaffolds are partially similar to articular cartilage extracellular matrix in composition, porous microarchitecture, water content and compressive mechanical properties, suggesting that they have promising potential for applications in articular cartilage repair. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a prevalent condition among the Malay population of Malaysia, where carriage risk of conventional hereditary thrombophilia factors has been generally ruled out. The contribution of M2/ANXA5, a common haplotype in the annexin A5 gene promoter, was evalauted for RSA in Malay. Seventy-seven women who had experienced two or more unexplained RSA and 41 available male partners were selected for study, with 360 population controls recruited from healthy Malay individuals.