RESULTS: The average annual risk for a child in Benin of becoming infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was around 0.5% in the mid 1980s. The notification rate increased by approximately 1% each year over the observation period and was on average 35 per 100000 population, with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1.8 and no shift in the age structure of the cases over the observation period. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 14% (97% of Salubrinal inhibitor the patients were tested).
There is a strong gradient of incident notification rates from the north to the south of the country that seems to be related to the population density.
CONCLUSION: Both the tuberculin skin test survey results and the notification data suggest that the TB problem in Benin is much smaller than in eastern and southern African countries.”
“This work was done as a part of our ongoing projects to catalog the chemical constituents and biological activities of the Morinda species growing in Vietnam. Phytochemical BLZ945 inhibitor investigations of the methanol extract of Morinda umbellata aerial parts resulted in the isolation of two new 11-noriridoids, umbellatolides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by NMR (H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, HSQC, HMBC, H-1-H-1 COSY, and NOESY) and FTICRMS data. This is
the first report of 11-noriridoids from M. umbellata. The cytotoxic activity and protective effect on oxidative stress injury stimulated by H2O2 in murine hepatocyte of 1 and 2 were also evaluated. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“SETTING: HM781-36B cost The main tuberculosis (TB) centre in Benin, West Africa, where only 2% of adult pulmonary TB cases arc sputum smear-negative, all other pulmonary cases being smear-positive.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB among TB suspects in Cotonou, and to estimate the total number of non-smear-positive TB cases at country level.
DESIGN: For 1 year, one
morning sputum culture was performed for every TB suspect (cough lasting > 3 weeks, as defined in Benin’s national guidelines) with three negative sputum smears (fluorescence technique).
RESULTS: Of 214 TB suspects for whom culture was performed, only 22 smear-negative, culture-positive cases were identified. During the same period, 831 sputum smear-positive cases were diagnosed. Culture therefore contributed only 2.6% of the total number of bacteriologically proven cases.
CONCLUSION: These results show the relatively low input of culture in TB diagnosis among chronic coughers in Cotonou, Benin, and demonstrates that the expected number of non-smear-positive TB cases in Benin is probably much lower than the World Health Organization’s current annual estimates.