Although esophageal pressure (Pes) measurements are often used to

Although esophageal pressure (Pes) measurements are often used to estimate pleural pressures in healthy subjects and patients, they are widely mistrusted and rarely used in critical illness. To assess the credibility of Pes as an estimate of pleural pressure in critically ill patients, we compared Pes measurements in 48 patients selleck screening library with acute lung injury with simultaneously measured

gastric and bladder pressures (Pga and P(blad)). End-expiratory Pes, Pga, and P(blad) were high and varied widely among patients, averaging 18.6 +/- 4.7, 18.4 +/- 5.6, and 19.3 +/- 7.8 cmH(2)O, respectively (mean +/- SD). End-expiratory Pes was correlated with Pga (P = 0.0004) and P(blad) (P = 0.0104) and unrelated PXD101 cell line to chest wall compliance. Pes-Pga differences were consistent with expected gravitational pressure gradients and transdiaphragmatic pressures. Transpulmonary pressure (airway pressure – Pes) was -2.8 +/- 4.9 cmH(2)O at end exhalation and

8.3 +/- 6.2 cmH(2)O at end inflation, values consistent with effects of mediastinal weight, gravitational gradients in pleural pressure, and airway closure at end exhalation. Lung parenchymal stress measured directly as end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure was much less than stress inferred from the plateau airway pressures and lung and chest wall compliances. We suggest that Pes can be used to estimate transpulmonary pressures that are consistent with known physiology and can provide meaningful information, otherwise unavailable, in critically https://www.selleckchem.com/products/urmc-099.html ill patients.”
“Mass spectrometry imaging is employed for mapping proteins, lipids and metabolites in biological tissues in a morphological context. Although initially developed as a tool for biomarker discovery by imaging the distribution of protein/peptide in tissue sections, the high sensitivity and molecular specificity of this technique have enabled its application to biomolecules, other than proteins, even in cells, latent finger prints and whole organisms. Relatively simple, with no requirement for labelling, homogenization, extraction or reconstitution, the technique has found a variety of applications

in molecular biology, pathology, pharmacology and toxicology. By discriminating the spatial distribution of biomolecules in serial sections of tissues, biomarkers of lesions and the biological responses to stressors or diseases can be better understood in the context of structure and function. In this review, we have discussed the advances in the different aspects of mass spectrometry imaging processes, application towards different disciplines and relevance to the field of toxicology.”
“Lectin histochemistry has revealed cell-type-selective glycosylation. It is under dynamic and spatially controlled regulation. Since their chemical properties allow carbohydrates to reach unsurpassed structural diversity in oligomers, they are ideal for high density information coding.

The diagnosis should be made promptly based on clinical symptoms

The diagnosis should be made promptly based on clinical symptoms coupled with radiological features. Once this diagnosis is suspected, treatment with corticosteroids and anticoagulation must be initiated as soon as possible in order to reduce severe morbidity and high

mortality.”
“Objectives: The campaign against tobacco addiction and smoking continues to play an important role in public health. However, referrals to outpatient tobacco cessation programs by emergency physicians LOXO-101 order are rarely pursued by patients following discharge. This study explored cost as a barrier to follow-up.\n\nMethods: The study was performed at a large urban hospital emergency department (ED) in Camden, New Jersey. Enrollment included adults who reported tobacco use in the past 30 days. Study participants were informed about a “Stop Smoking Clinic” affiliated with the hospital and, depending on enrollment date, cost of treatment was advertised as $150 (standard fee), $20 (reduced fee), or $0 (no fee). Monitoring of patient inquiries and visits to the clinic see more was performed for 6 months following enrollment

of the last study subject.\n\nResults: The analyzed sample consisted of 577 tobacco users. There were no statistically significant demographic differences between treatment groups (p > 0.05). Two-hundred forty-seven (43%) participants reported “very much” interest in smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in initiating treatment with the Stop Smoking Clinic across experimental condition. Only a single subject, enrolled in the no-fee phase, initiated treatment with the clinic.\n\nConclusions: Cost is unlikely to be the only barrier to pursing outpatient tobacco treatment after an ED visit. Further research is needed to determine the critical components of counseling and referral that maximize postdischarge treatment initiation. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2011; 18:662-664 (C) 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine”
“In a previous study, we experienced instable amplification and a low amplification

success in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions from naturally occurring vegetative cells or resting cysts of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella. In this study, we examined GDC-0994 4 methods for extracting DNA from single resting cysts of A. tamarense and A. catenella to obtain more stable and better amplification success and to facilitate unambiguous detection using the LAMP method. Apart from comparing the 4 different DNA extraction methods, namely, (1) boiling in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer, (2) heating at 65 degrees C in hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer, (3) boiling in 0.5% Chelex buffer, and (4) boiling in 5% Chelex buffer, we also examined the need for homogenization to crush the resting cysts before DNA extraction in each method. Homogenization of resting cysts was found to be essential for DNA extraction in all 4 methods.

A treatment-limiting

decision was identified in 993 (

\n\nA treatment-limiting

decision was identified in 993 (47%) patients. Fully-adjusted logistic regression model showed that a CCI a parts per thousand yen 5 (OR=25.56 with P=0.037), age a parts per thousand yen85 years (OR=20.33 with P < 0.001), living in an institution (OR=0.15 with P=0.017), hematologic (OR=6.92 with P=0.020) and respiratory disease (OR=0.17 PD173074 with P=0.046), and neurologic causes (OR=0.20 with P=0.010) of organ failure were significantly associated with treatment-limiting decisions.\n\nAn elevated CCI score (a parts per thousand yen5) was associated with a treatment-limiting decision in elderly patients evaluated in the EDs. Further research is needed to corroborate this finding.”
“P>Objectives\n\nTo estimate the proportion of all-cause adult patient attrition from antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in service delivery settings in sub-Saharan Africa through 36 months on treatment.\n\nMethods\n\nWe identified cohorts within Ovid Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Database of Systematic

Reviews and four conference abstract archives. We summarized retention rates from studies GSK2399872A nmr describing observational cohorts from sub-Saharan Africa reporting on adult HIV 1- infected patients initiating first-line three-drug ART. We estimated all-cause attrition rates for 6, 12, 18, 24, or 36 months after ART initiation including patients who died or were lost to follow-up (as defined by the BAY 73-4506 author), but excluding transferred patients.\n\nResults\n\nWe analysed 33 sources describing 39 cohorts and 226 307 patients. Patients were more likely to be female (median 65%) and had a median age at initiation of 37 (range 34-40). Median starting CD4 count was

109 cells/mm3. Loss to follow-up was the most common cause of attrition (59%), followed by death (41%). Median attrition at 12, 24 and 36 months was 22.6% (range 7%-45%), 25% (range 11%-32%) and 29.5% (range 13%-36.1%) respectively. After pooling data in a random-effects meta-analysis, retention declined from 86.1% at 6 months to 80.2% at 12 months, 76.8% at 24 months and 72.3% at 36 months. Adjusting for variable follow-up time in a sensitivity analysis, 24 month retention was 70.0% (range: 66.7%-73.3%), while 36 month retention was 64.6% (range: 57.5%-72.1%).\n\nConclusions\n\nOur findings document the difficulties in retaining patients in care for lifelong treatment, and the progress being made in raising overall retention rates.”
“This paper presents a brain-computer interface (BCI) architecture for robotic devices. Two datasets are used to perform a simulation of real-time classification, which is a pseudo-online technique, to measure the performance of the proposed BCI architecture.

1038/ejcn 2010 243; published online 17 November 2010″
“Soli

1038/ejcn.2010.243; published online 17 November 2010″
“Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a plasma cell neoplasm that develops outside of the bone marrow. A solitary, exophytic growth in the airway is an extremely rare presentation of SEP. We herein report a case of SEP presenting as an endobronchial mass. The tumor was treated by rigid bronchoscopic de-bulking followed by ablation using argon plasma coagulation. However,

the tumor could not be completely this website removed due to its wide base. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered as the curative therapy. A biopsy was performed on the resected specimen and the diagnosis of plasmacytoma was thereby confirmed.”
“Characteristics of the atmospheric non-thermal ac arc air plasmas produced by a plasma generator with a floating electrode are investigated. The measurements show that, with the help of the surface dielectric barrier discharges between the main electrodes and the floating electrode, the ignition voltage of the non-thermal arc discharges can be reduced significantly, and an arc discharge mode can be stabilized at high gas flow rates. The measured temperatures of the non-thermal arcs are at the level of 2000-3000 K under different operating conditions.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622148]“
“Aims: The expected buy AZD7762 release of the DSM-V in 2012 has renewed the longstanding debate around whether alcohol use disorders are best conceptualized as dimensional or categorical constructs. The current study aimed to validate the current diagnostic thresholds for alcohol dependence and abuse using epidemiological indicators including mental health, disability, psychological distress, functional impairment, service use, suicidality

and early age of drinking onset. Methods: Dichotomous variables were created to allocate a representative sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 4920) above and below each possible Dorsomorphin threshold for both disorders. Regression analyses were conducted to assess group differences at each threshold for each epidemiological indicator. Results: There was some albeit limited support for the current diagnostic threshold of three criteria for alcohol dependence and one criterion for abuse. A number of other cut-offs also showed consistent variation for both disorders. Conclusions: It is essential to define diagnostic thresholds in a systematic way. The current diagnostic thresholds for alcohol dependence and abuse are adequate but require further validation using a variety of methods and external indicators. Combining these disorders in some way may also prove useful as well as including other potential diagnostic criteria in future research.”
“Plasmodium falciparum cells tend to grow in synchronicity during their cyclic intraerythrocytic development in vivo. Both host and parasite factors appear to be involved in this synchronization. We examined the link between mixed-allelic-family P.


“The influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (H


“The influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) is responsible for viral attachment to sialic acid-containing host cell receptors and it facilitates the initial stage of viral

AG-014699 in vitro infection. In the present study, we isolated an RNA aptamer specific to the glycosylated receptor-binding domain of the HA protein (gHA1) after 12 cycles of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment procedure (SELEX), and we then investigated if the selected aptamer suppresses viral infection in host cells. Nitrocellulose filter binding and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) experiments revealed that 1 RNA aptamer, HA12-16, bound specifically to the gHA1 protein. Cell viability assay showed that the HA12-16 RNA aptamer suppressed viral infection in host cells by enhancing cell viability. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis further demonstrated that the HA12-16 RNA aptamer suppresses viral attachment to host cells by neutralizing the receptor-binding site of influenza virus HA. These results indicate that the isolated RNA aptamer can be developed as an antiviral reagent against influenza through appropriate therapeutic formulation.”
“BackgroundWe evaluated the feasibility of asking pregnant women to self-collect and ship respiratory specimens. MethodsIn a preliminary laboratory study, we compared the RT-PCR cycle threshold (CT) values of influenza A and B viruses incubated at 4 storage temperatures

SYN-117 click here (from 4 to 35 degrees C) for 6 time periods (8, 24, 48, 72, and 168hours and 30days), resulting in 24 conditions that were compared to an aliquot tested after standard freezing (-20 degrees C) (baseline condition). In a subsequent pilot study, during January-February, 2014, we delivered respiratory specimen collection kits to 53 pregnant women with a medically attended acute respiratory illness using three delivery methods. ResultsCT values were stableafter storage at temperatures smaller than 27 degrees C for up to 72hours for influenza A viruses and 48hours for influenza B viruses. Of 53 women who received kits during the pilot, 89% collected and shipped nasal swabs

as requested. However, 30% (14/47) of the women took over 2days to collect and ship their specimen. The human control gene, ribonuclease P (RNase P), was detected in 100% of nasal swab specimens. However, the mean CT values for RNase P (265, 95% confidence interval [CI]=260-271) and for the 8 influenza A virus positives in our pilot (322, 95% CI=289-355) were significantly higher than the CTs observed in our 2010-2012 study using staff-collected nasal pharyngeal swabs (P-values smaller than 001). DiscussionSelf-collection of respiratory specimens is a promising research method, but further research is needed to quantify the sensitivity and specificity of the approach.”
“Objectives. T helper 17 (Th17), T cytotoxic 17 (Tc17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are important factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway also signifi

Activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway also significantly reduced self-renewal of human ERMS, indicating a conserved function

for this pathway in modulating ERMS self-renewal. In total, we have identified an unconventional tumor suppressive role for the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway in regulating self-renewal of ERMS and revealed therapeutic strategies to target differentiation of TPCs in ERMS.”
“The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae is growing worldwide. Infections with these bacteria are suspected to be related to increased mortality. We aimed to estimate the distribution of ESBL genotypes and to assess the impact on mortality associated with ESBL positivity in cases of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to K. pneumoniae. We performed a cohort Duvelisib price study on patients with K. pneumoniae BSI between 2008 and

2011. Presence of ESBL genes was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors for mortality were analyzed by Cox-proportional hazard regression. We identified 286 ESBL-negative (81%) and 66 (19%) ESBL-positive cases. 97% (n = 64) of the PI3K inhibitor ESBL-positive isolates were susceptible for meropenem. The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-15 (60%), SHV-5 (27%) and CTX-M-3 (5%). Significant risk factors for mortality were chronic pulmonary disease (HR 1.747) and moderate/severe renal disease (HR 2.572). ESBL positivity was not associated with increased mortality. (C) 2014, Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Wheat is the staple food and is widely consumed. Amaranthus (Rajgeera) has been proposed as an alternative to be used as a thickener in textile printing of vat dyes. Extraction of starch from Amaranthus (Rajgeera) and wheat was done by alkali steeping. In this paper detailed physical and chemical analysis of Amaranthus and wheat starch has been reported. Analysis of both the starches was done by measuring

swelling power, paste clarity, crystallinity of starch using X-Ray diffraction and iodine click here binding. Printing of vat dye on 100% cotton fabric was done using Amaranthus (Rajgeera) and wheat starch pastes. The prints were then analysed by measuring K/S and L*, a*, b* values by reflectance method, bending length, washing & rubbing fastness etc. Results suggest that Amaranthus (Rajgeera) can be used to substitute wheat starch in textile printing. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Focal adhesions (FAs) are complex plasma membrane-associated macromolecular assemblies that serve to physically connect the actin cytoskeleton to integrins that engage with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).

(C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc “
“AIM: To determine the incidence

(C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“AIM: To determine the incidence and characteristics of intestinal and extra-intestinal cancers

among patients with inflammatory bowel disease in a Spanish hospital and to compare them with those of the local population.\n\nMETHODS: This was a prospective, observational, 7-year follow-up, cohort study. Cumulative incidence, incidence rates based on person-years of follow-up and relative risk were calculated for patients with inflammatory bowel disease and compared with the background population. The incidence of cancer was determined using a hospital-based data registry from Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada. Demographic data and details about time from diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease to occurrence HKI-272 nmr of cancer, disease extent, inflammatory bowel disease treatment, cancer therapy and cancer evolution were also collected in BI 2536 chemical structure the inflammatory bowel disease cohort.\n\nRESULTS: Eighteen of 590 patients with inflammatory bowel disease developed cancer

[cumulative incidence = 3% (95% CI: 1.58-4.52) vs 2% (95% CI: 1.99-2.11) in the background population; RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 0.97-2.29]. The cancer incidence among inflammatory bowel disease patients was 0.53% (95% CI: 0.32-0.84) per patient-year of follow-up. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease had a significantly increased relative risk of urothelial carcinoma (RR = 5.23, 95% CI: 1.95-13.87), appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma (RR = 36.6, 95% CI: 7.92-138.4), neuroendocrine carcinoma (RR = 13.1, 95% CI: 1.82-29.7) and rectal carcinoid (RR = 8.94, 95% CI: 1.18-59.7). Colorectal

cancer cases were not found.\n\nCONCLUSION: The overall risk of cancer did not significantly increase in our inflammatory bowel disease patients. However, there was an increased risk of urinary bladder cancer and, with less statistical power, an increased risk of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma and of neuroendocrine tumors. Colorectal cancer risk was low in our series. (C) 2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.”
“With a mean global incidence of 1:14500, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most common VX-689 disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD). In case of female karyotype, the prenatal surplus of androgens causes virilization of the external genitalia. This includes clitoral hypertrophy and an increasing higher confluence of the urethra and normal developed proximal vagina, creating the urogenital sinus. Internal genitalia are female.\n\nUntil recently feminizing surgery was performed within the first 18 months of life, at least concerning clitoroplasty. Though the cosmetic result of this kind of surgery is quite good, functional shortcomings like clitoral hyposensibility were often reported.

In the present study, we used outdoor experiments to investigate

In the present study, we used outdoor experiments to investigate several characteristics of the reproductive behaviour of P. archon: sexual maturity, diel periodicity of mating, occurrence of polyandry and delay between mating and laying eggs. The results indicate that 73% of the individuals

studied were sexually mature three hours after adult emergence. Mating peaked between 14:00 h and 15:00 h and 87% of the females were fertilized and started laying eggs 1.25 (+/- 1.14) YH25448 datasheet days after mating. Females were generally monandrous, but nevertheless remained attractive after mating. The results of this study provide the necessary background knowledge for studying several aspects of P. archon reproductive biology, in particular oviposition, sex pheromones and their role in mediating mating behaviour in this pest. These results are the first step in developing tools for monitoring populations of this pest.”
“Wind energy is of increasing importance for a sustainable energy supply worldwide. At the same time, concerns about the number of birds and bats being killed at wind turbines have been growing. In this situation, methods for a reliable estimation of bird and bat fatality numbers are

needed. To obtain an unbiased estimate of the number of fatalities from fatality searches, the probability to detect the carcass of an animal being killed at a turbine has to be assessed by considering carcass persistence rate, searcher efficiency and the probability that selleck chemical a killed animal falls into a searched area. Here, we describe a new formula to determine the detection

probability small molecule library screening of birds or bats that are killed at wind turbines and which can estimate the number of fatalities from the number of carcasses found. The formula was developed to analyse a large data set of bats killed at wind turbines in Germany. In simulations, we compared it to three other formulas used in this context. Our new formula seems to have unbiased results when searcher efficiency and carcass removal rate are constant over time. When searcher efficiency or carcass removal rate varied with time, all four formulas showed a similar bias. These comparative results can be used to choose between methods depending on the quality of information available. Our estimator can, for instance, be adapted to different situations including temporal changes of searcher efficiency or carcass removal rate because it is based on an explicit process model.”
“Objective Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes severe liver disease and affects more than 160 million individuals worldwide. People undergoing liver organ transplantation face universal re-infection of the graft. Therefore, affordable antiviral strategies targeting the early stages of infection are urgently needed to prevent the recurrence of HCV infection.

This study also demonstrates that it is possible to draw sound co

This study also demonstrates that it is possible to draw sound conclusions from comparing complex and similar unassembled metagenomes at the functional level, even with very low sequence coverage.”
“Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS

through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e. g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C selleck screening library includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages).\n\nMethods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel.

A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: TH-302 cost the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity.\n\nResults: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most

items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains.\n\nConclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool AZD0530 which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.”
“objective: Despite delirium being common in older hospitalized people, little is known about its management. The aims of this study are (1) to describe the pharmacological management of delirium in an acute care setting as a baseline measure prior to the implementation of newly developed Australian guidelines; and (2) to determine what areas of delirium pharmacological management need to be targeted for future practical guideline implementation and quality improvement activities.\n\nMethods: A medical record audit was conducted using a structured audit form.

The administration of hemin lowered the plasma levels of cystatin

The administration of hemin lowered the plasma levels of cystatin C, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, TM, and EPCR; elevated plasma level of activated protein C; prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time; attenuated microthrombus formation; and upregulated the expression of TM this website and EPCR and mRNA levels of TM and EPCR in the kidney in the CLP + hemin group. In contrast,

ZnPP had the opposite effects. The results indicated that the enhanced induction of HO-1 increased the expression of TM and EPCR in the kidney and exerted an anticoagulant effect, thereby attenuating kidney injury in septic rats.”
“Hippo-like MST1 protein kinase regulates cell growth, organ size, and carcinogenesis. Reduction or loss of MST1 expression is implicated in poor cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism leading to MST1 silencing remains HDAC assay elusive. Here, we report that both MYC and EZH2 function as

potent suppressors of MST1 expression in human prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that concurrent overexpression of MYC and EZH2 correlated with the reduction or loss of MST1 expression, as shown by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. Methylation sensitive PCR and bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing showed that DNA methylation caused MST1 silencing. Pharmacologic and RNAi experiments revealed that MYC and EZH2 silenced MST1 expression by inhibiting its promoter activity, and that EZH2 was a mediator of the MYC-induced silencing of MST1. In addition, MYC contributed to MST1 silencing by partly inhibiting the expression of microRNA-26a/b, a negative

regulator of EZH2. As shown by ChIP assays, EZH2-induced DNA methylation and H3K27me3 modification, which was accompanied by a reduced H3K4me3 mark and RNA polymerase II occupancy on the MST1 promoter CpG region, were the underlying cause of MST1 silencing. Moreover, potent pharmacologic inhibitors of MYC or EZH2 suppressed prostate cancer cell growth in vitro, and the knockdown of MST1 caused cells’ resistance to MYC and EZH2 inhibitor-induced growth retardation. These findings indicate that MYC, in concert with EZH2, epigenetically attenuates MST1 expression selleckchem and suggest that the loss of MST1/Hippo functions is critical for the MYC or EZH2 mediation of cancer cell survival.”
“Purpose. Pharmacy workflow efficiencies achieved through the use of an electronic medication-tracking system are described.\n\nMethods. Medication dispensing turnaround times at the inpatient pharmacy of a large hospital were evaluated before and after transition from manual medication tracking to a Web-based tracking process involving sequential bar-code scanning and real-time monitoring of medication status.