The velocity of the ball was adapted to 50 or 70% of the maximum

The velocity of the ball was adapted to 50 or 70% of the maximum walking velocity of the participant. Results revealed that both younger and older children show a less accurate performance when the ball trajectory was occluded, while the walking profile and timing of the reach was not influenced by the occlusion manipulations. The findings seem to suggest that both groups were less accurate BMS-754807 when the necessity of planning was enhanced. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Genetically modified (GM) crops are used extensively worldwide to control diploid agricultural insect pests that reproduce sexually.

However, future GM crops will likely soon target haplodiploid and parthenogenetic insects. As rapid pest adaptation could LY294002 chemical structure compromise these novel crops, strategies to manage resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests are urgently needed. Here, we developed models to characterize factors that could delay or prevent the evolution of resistance to GM crops in diploid, haplodiploid, and parthenogenetic

insect pests. The standard strategy for managing resistance in diploid pests relies on refuges of non-GM host plants and GM crops that produce high toxin concentrations. Although the tenets of the standard refuge strategy apply to all pests, this strategy does not greatly delay the evolution of resistance in haplodiploid or parthenogenetic pests. Two additional factors are needed to effectively delay or prevent the evolution WZB117 price of resistance in such pests, large recessive or smaller non-recessive

fitness costs must reduce the fitness of resistance individuals in refuges (and ideally also on GM crops), and resistant individuals must have lower fitness on GM compared to non-GM crops (in complete resistance). Recent research indicates that the magnitude and dominance of fitness costs could be increased by using specific host-plants , natural enemies, or pathogens. Furthermore, incomplete resistance could be enhanced by engineering desirable traits into novel GM crops. Thus, the sustainability of GM crops that target haplodiploid or parthenogenetic pests will require careful consideration of the effects of reproductive mode, fitness costs, and incomplete resistance. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The M1/M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist xanomeline can significantly improve the cognitive function, but the intolerable side effects limit its clinical usefulness. Our recent study has reported a novel derivative of xanomeline, 3-[3-(3-(3-florophenyl)-2-propyn-1-ylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine oxalate (EUK1001), exhibited higher affinity of mAChRs and less side effects relative to xanomeline.

During narrative comprehension, inference-related priming was rel

During narrative comprehension, inference-related priming was reliable and

equally strong in Verubecestat mw both hemispheres. In contrast, during conversation comprehension, inference-related priming was only reliable for target words presented to lvf-RH. This work demonstrates that priming for inference-related concepts can be measured with input in conversational form and suggests the language processing style of the RH is advantageous for comprehending conversation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Radon and radon progeny inhalation exposure are recognized to induce lung cancer. To explore the role of mitochondria in radon-induced carcinogenesis in humans, an in vitro partially depleted mitochondrial Entinostat price DNA (mtDNA) cell line (rho-) was generated by treatment of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (rho+) with ethidium bromide (EB). The characterization of rho- cells indicated the presence of dysfunctional mitochondria and might thus serve a reliable model to investigate the role of mitochondria. In a gas inhalation chamber, rho-

and rho+ cells were exposed to radon gas produced by a radium source. Results showed that apoptosis was significantly increased both in rho- and rho+ cells irradiated by radon. Moreover, apoptosis in rho- cells showed a lower level than in rho+ cells. Radon was further found to depress mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of HBE cells with knockdown mtDNA. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was markedly elevated both in rho- and rho+ Sclareol cells exposed to radon. The distribution of phases of cell cycle was different in rho- compared to rho+ cells. Radon irradiation induced a rise in G2/M and decrease in S phase in rho+ cells. In rho- cells, G1, G2/M, and S populations remained similar to cells exposed to radon. In conclusion, radon-induced changes

in ROS generation, MMP and cell cycle are all attributed to reduction of apoptosis, which may trigger and promote cell transformation, leading to carcinogenesis. Our study indicates that the use of the rho- knockdown mtDNA HBE cells may serve as a reliable model to study the role played by mitochondria in carcinogenic diseases.”
“Atherosclerosis results from a metabolic imbalance and chronic arterial inflammation and macrophages are key during the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. A number of macrophage subsets have been identified in atherosclerotic plaques. Arginase 1 (Arg1), a marker for the M2 anti-inflammatory subset, hydrolyzes L-arginine into urea and omithine, a precursor to L-proline and polyamines, which are implicated in tissue repair and wound healing. Additionally, Arg1 inhibits nitric oxide-mediated inflammatory pathways by competing with iNOS for the same substrate, L-arginine. Therefore, changes in Arg1 expression in macrophages may affect the development of atherosclerosis.

The cerebral blood flow response in healthy human cortex has

The cerebral blood flow response in healthy human cortex has

not been determined, and thus it is unclear whether the cerebral oligemia associated with migraines represents the normal physiological response to a CSD-like event or represents a pathological response. In addition to promoting cerebral hyperemia, NO produced during CSD appears to initiate signaling events which lead to protection of the brain against subsequent ischemic insults. In summary, the cerebrovascular response to CSD involves multiple dilator and constrictor factors produced and released by diverse cells within the neurovascular unit, with the contribution of each of these factors varying according to the species examined. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to study the organization of brain white matter noninvasively. The aim of this study was to present a proof of concept for integrating DTI with high-resolution anatomical (T1) images to map and assess inter-regional connectivity across the entire cortex in a cohort of healthy participants and compared with patients

with major depressive disorder. We used MRI data of 23 patients and 23 matched controls, assessed as part of baseline testing in the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Freesurfer was used to analyze the T1 images to automatically label 35 gyral-based areas for each hemisphere. DTI tractography was performed to parcellate intercortical tracts using each of these areas in seed-target combinations. We quantified fractional anisotropy, selleck number-of-fiber connections, and fiber path length for each DTI connection, with the goal of identifying the best measure or combination of measures Carteolol HCl to characterize major depression. The best classification accuracy for the individual measures was achieved using the

number-of-fibers data, whereas the combination model provided a slight improvement. The most discriminant features between the two groups were for white matter associated with the limbic, frontal, and thalamic projection fibers and as part of cortical connections between the left inferior temporal and the postcentral cortex; the left parstriangularis and the left superior frontal; the left cuneus and the corpus callosum; the left lingual and the right lateral occipital, the right superior parietal and the right superior temporal cortices; and the right inferior parietal and the right insula and postcentral cortices. NeuroReport 23:566-571 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Mechanisms to increase access to health products are varied and controversial. Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines.

Transfection of keratinocyte growth factor-FLAG expression vector

Transfection of keratinocyte growth factor-FLAG expression vector resulted in further significant enhancement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at day 4 after trilobectomy; however, the transfection of FLAG expression vector did not alter the enhancement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Exogenous expression of keratinocyte growth factor in the remaining lung by means of electroporation significantly augmented epithelial proliferation and decreased the average airspace distance (mean linear intercept).

Conclusion: Our results implicate keratinocyte growth factor in the induction of alveolar epithelial cell proliferation

for compensatory lung growth and indicate that overexpression click here of keratinocyte growth factor in the remaining lung by means of electroporation significantly augmented lung epithelial proliferation.”
“OBJECTIVE: With the use of data from 3 Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) publications, various parameters for buttock/thigh-level sciatic nerve and tibial and common peroneal divisions/nerve

injuries were summarized, and outcomes were compared.

METHODS: Data from 806 buttock/thigh-level sciatic nerve and tibial and common peroneal division/nerve injury repairs were summarized. Lesion types, repair techniques, and outcomes were compared.

RESULTS: Acute lacerations undergoing suture repair were best for the thigh-then-buttock-level tibial (93%/73%) and find more then same-level common peroneal divisions Gemcitabine mouse (69%/30%); at the knee level, tibial outcomes (100%) were better than those for the common peroneal nerve (CPN) (84%). Secondary graft repairs for lacerations had good outcomes for the thigh-then-buttock-level tibial (80%/62%), followed by common peroneal divisions at the same levels (45%/24%). The knee/leg-level tibial nerve (94%) did better than the CPN (40%) here. In-continuity lesions with positive intraoperative nerve action potentials underwent neurolysis with better results for the thigh-then-buttock-level tibial division (95%/86%) than for same-level CPN (78%/69%). The knee/leg-level

tibial nerve did better than the CPN (95%/93%).

CONCLUSION: Better recovery of buttock- and thigh-level tibial division/nerve occurs because: 1) the CPN is lateral and thus vulnerable to a more severe injury; 2) the tibial nerve is more elastic at impact owing to its singular-fixation site (the CPN has a dual fixation); 3) the tibial nerve has a better blood supply and regeneration; 4) the tibial nerve has a higher force-absorbing fascicle/connective tissue count than the CPN; and 5) the tibial nerve-innervated gastrocnemius soleus requires less reinnervation for functional contraction than deep peroneal branches, which innervate long, thin extensor muscles at multiple sites and require coordinated nerve input for effective contraction.”
“Objective: Long-term results of surgical vessel reconstruction are compromised by restenosis caused by neointimal hyperplasia.

Taken together, safe bilateral targeting of the LHb-c was possibl

Taken together, safe bilateral targeting of the LHb-c was possible in 98% of all patients.

CONCLUSION: Targeting LHb-c is a feasible and safe technique in the majority of patients undergoing surgery for DBS. However, meticulous individual planning to avoid interference

with ventricles and thalamus-related veins is mandatory because an alternative steep frontal entry point has to be considered in about half of the patients.”
“Amongst a specialised group of psychrophilic microalgae WH-4-023 supplier that have adapted to thrive exclusively in summer snow fields, Chloromonas nivalis has been reported as a species causing green, orange or pink blooms in many alpine and polar regions worldwide. Nevertheless, the cytology, ecophysiology and taxonomy of this species are still unresolved. Intracellular processes during cyst formation, which is the Lonafarnib dominant stage on snow fields, were examined with samples from the European Alps to better understand the cellular strategies of a green alga living in this harsh

habitat. We show with two different methods, i.e. oxygen optode fluorometry and by chlorophyll fluorescence, that the cysts are photosynthetically highly active, although they do not divide, and that Chloromonas nivalis can cope with low as well as high light conditions. During cyst formation, the chloroplast is fragmented into several smaller parts, enlarging the surface to volume ratio. The pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments is significantly enlarged, which is different from other snow algae. The cytoplasm is filled with lipid bodies containing astaxanthin,

a secondary carotenoid that causes the typical orange colour. The cyst wall surface possesses characteristic elongate flanges, which are unless assembled extracellulary by accumulation of material in the periplasmatic interspace. Comparison of Chloromonas nivalis samples from different locations (Austrian Alps, Spitsbergen) by molecular methods indicates genetic variations due to spatial isolation, while a North American strain has no close relationship to the taxon.”
“Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a fatal malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of virally infected CD4(+) T cells. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is believed to contribute to development and maintenance of ATL. Unlike the other HTLV-1 genes, the hbz gene is encoded on the complementary strand of the provirus and therefore is not under direct control of the promoter within the 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) of the provirus. This promoter can undergo inactivating genetic or epigenetic changes during the course of ATL that eliminates expression of all viral genes except that of hbz. In contrast, repressive modifications are not known to occur on the hbz promoter located in the 3′ LTR, and hbz expression has been consistently detected in all ATL patient samples.

Studies varied in terms of instruments used, thresholds for clini

Studies varied in terms of instruments used, thresholds for clinical significance, baseline psychiatric history exclusions, and timing of assessments learn more (range = I month to 8 years). Psychiatrist-diagnosed PTSD prevalence at hospital discharge, 5 years, and 8 years were 44%,

25%, and 24%, respectively. Three studies prospectively assessed risk factors for post-ALI/ARDS PTSD and depressive symptoms; significant predictors included longer durations of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and sedation. All four studies that examined relationships between psychiatric symptoms and quality of life found significant negative associations. Conclusions: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in patients surviving ARDS seems high. Future research should incorporate more in-depth diagnostic and risk factor assessments for prevention and monitoring purposes.”
“Purpose: The motivation to preserve sexual function can vary widely among patients before prostatectomy. Increasing patient involvement may allow a more personalized experience and may improve satisfaction. We assessed a strategy of surgeon deference to patient choice

in regard to nerve sparing to determine to what degree patients are rational actors and capable of active decision making.

Materials and Methods: A total of 150 patients treated with prostatectomy participated in a standardized preoperative discussion regarding the concept of nerve sparing, extracapsular FG-4592 supplier extension and the potential need for adjuvant radiation in the event of local recurrence. Each patient was given his nomogram predicted risk of extracapsular extension and then elected nerve sparing or nonnerve sparing. The corresponding procedure

was performed unless grossly invasive disease was encountered.

Results: Of the 150 patients 109 chose nerve sparing (73%) and 41 chose nonnerve sparing (27%). In patients with a nomogram predicted risk of extracapsular extension less than 20%, 20% to 50% and greater than 50%, nerve sparing was elected by 88%, 41% Carbohydrate and 25%, respectively. Patients with lower risks of extracapsular extension electing nonnerve sparing were older and had higher rates of erectile dysfunction.

Conclusions: Empowering patients to decide on their nerve sparing status is a reasonable strategy that did not lead to a high rate of patients with a high risk of extracapsular extension electing nerve sparing. With proper counseling informed patients made reasonable decisions, and appeared to be conservative, prioritizing cancer control in the majority of instances where extracapsular extension risk was high. In addition, they may have been overly conservative in electing nonnerve sparing when the risk was low.”
“More than 60% of adults in the US are classified as overweight, with most developing associated metabolic problems.


Conclusions: Patients with retroperitoneal fibros


Conclusions: Patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis often first present to urology departments upon referral for hydronephrosis. In this series at least 1 kidney appeared to be irreversibly damaged in more than 20% of patients. Urologists should be mindful of the role of smoking role as a risk factor, complications arising from vascular and large bowel obstructions, and the possible association of retroperitoneal fibrosis with autoimmune disease.”
“The principal purpose of this study was to examine whether event-related

potential (ERP) waveform amplitudes at around 200 ms are affected by first-syllable frequency. Another purpose of this study was to investigate whether the source of the amplitude at around 200 ms is phonological syllable frequency or orthographic syllable frequency. The phonological first-syllable frequency and the orthographic first-syllable frequency of Korean pseudo-words were manipulated, AZD9291 molecular weight Barasertib cell line and ERPs were collected during a go/no-go lexical decision

task. The results of this study showed that the P200 waveform is sensitive to the frequency of the first phonological syllable; specifically, pseudo-words with higher phonological first-syllable frequency produced a lower P200 amplitude than those with lower phonological first-syllable frequency. The orthographic syllable frequency did not affect the P200 waveform. The present result implies that there may be different routes by which phonological syllables and orthographic syllables are processed during the early stage of the visual word recognition process. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We determined the soluble Monoiodotyrosine B7-H3 level and its clinical significance in serum and expressed prostatic secretions of patients with chronic prostatitis, including chronic bacterial prostatitis (type II) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Materials and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we measured soluble B7-H3 in 11 patients

with chronic prostatitis (type II), and 26 with inflammatory (type IIIA) and 54 with noninflammatory (type IIIB) chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and healthy donors. We assessed differences between these groups using Student’s t test. As determined by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, we correlated soluble B7-H3 with clinical pain using the Pearson test.

Results: We found no significant difference between serum soluble B7-H3 in healthy donors and patients with chronic prostatitis (p = 0.897). However, soluble B7-H3 in expressed prostatic secretions was statistically significantly decreased in patients with chronic prostatitis vs controls (p <0.001). ROC using soluble B7-H3 greater than 38.82 ng/ml in expressed prostatic secretions distinguished patients with chronic prostatitis from healthy donors with 90.9% sensitivity and 83.5% specificity.

“Purpose: We objectively quantified the gain in urethral d

“Purpose: We objectively quantified the gain in urethral diameter and the effect of stenting after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in a rabbit hypospadias model.

Materials and Methods: We created a hypospadias model in 12 New Zealand white male rabbits by excising the ventral urethra. A 3 cm tattoo line was made longitudinally in the dorsal urethral plate midline. Two weeks later a 2 cm relaxing incision

was made in the middle part of the tattooed line. The stretched incision width between the tattooed edges was measured, followed by urethral plate tubularization. Six rabbits were selleck chemicals llc stented and 6 were nonstented. Two weeks later the animals were sacrificed and the distance separating the selleckchem tattoo was measured at the midpoint of the tattooed line. Transverse sections at this point were examined histologically.

Results: All animals survived the procedures. Stents were removed at 7 days in 4 rabbits and fell out in 2 at 4 and 2 days, respectively. The mean +/-

SD incision width of 5.5 +/- 1.6 mm (range 3 to 8) at tubularization became 2 +/- 0.5 mm (range 1 to 3) after healing (p <0.002). Mean width of the healed incision was 1.7 +/- 0.4 (range 1 to 2) vs 2.3 +/- 0.5 mm (range 1.5 to 3) in the nonstented and stented groups, respectively (p <0.06). Rabbits with a stenting duration of less than 7 days were excluded from the last analysis. Histologically all incisions healed completely with an intact epithelium.

Conclusions: The initial width of the midline relaxing incision significantly decreased after complete epithelialization. The average gain in urethral width was only 2 mm. Stenting appeared to increase the width of the healed incisions but not in a statistically significant manner.”
“A large body of evidence indicates that reactivation of aversive memories leads to protein synthesis-dependent memory reconsolidation which can be disrupted by cycloheximide and other protein synthesis inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cycloheximide would alter reconsolidation Ketotifen of the associations involving discrete cues

paired with a sweet reward in an appetitive instrumental task. Rats trained to lever press for 0.1% saccharin were repeatedly tested for cue-induced reinstatement of non-reinforced responding for saccharin. CHX (3 mg/kg, s.c.) or its vehicle was injected immediately after each reinstatement session. The protein synthesis inhibitor did not alter the ability of the saccharin-paired cues to reinstate saccharin seeking. The present results suggest that passive re-exposure to saccharin-paired discrete cues in the reinstatement procedure does not lead to any cycloheximide-sensitive reconsolidation of the original associations. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Current theories of consciousness posit a dissociation between ‘phenomenal’ consciousness (rich) and ‘access’ consciousness (limited).

The only patient of the 20 found to have a technical problem rela

The only patient of the 20 found to have a technical problem related to surgery had this resolved angiographically. There was one complication in a patient with failed endovascular thrombolysis, who had extravasation from the arterial anastomosis that halted the procedure. This patient later had surgical revision in keeping with the angiographic findings. Cumulative patency rates at 6 months

and I year were 75% and 68%, respectively.

Conclusions. Selleckchem Elafibranor Endovascular thrombolysis for early occlusion of prosthetic AVAs is feasible, safe, and is associated with a good patency rate. It appears to be a better initial approach than surgical revision in these patients because technical-surgical problems related to AVA construction are rare.”
“We studied the involvement of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the central nucleus

of amygdala (CeA), WZB117 lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTI) and nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in generation of ethanol withdrawal symptoms, with particular focus on anxiety-like behavior using a social interaction test. Administration of CART (54-102) into the lateral ventricle (50 and 100 ng) and bilaterally in the CeA (10 and 20 ng) caused a significant reduction in social interaction, suggesting an anxiogenic action of the peptide. Chronic ethanol treatment for 15 days followed by withdrawal precipitated an anxiogenic response at 24 h that was attenuated by intracerebroventricular (5 mu l) and intra-CeA (1 ml) administration of antibodies against CART (1 : 500 dilution). An immunocytochemistry protocol

was employed to study the response of the endogenous CART system in the CeA following chronic ethanol withdrawal. At 0 h ethanol withdrawal, CART immunoreactivity was apparent in few fibers and the profile was similar to that in the pair-fed control rats. Twenty-four hours following ethanol withdrawal, a highly significant increase (P<0.001) in CART immunoreactivity was noticed in the CeA, which returned to normal 48 and 72 h post-withdrawal. Similar doses of CART or CART antibody injected bilaterally into the BNSTI or AcbSh produced no response in the Tideglusib social interaction test. Furthermore, the CART immunoreactivity profile did not change at the post-withdrawal time points in each of these brain sites. We suggest that CART may mediate the early signs of anxiety-like behavior induced by ethanol withdrawal within the neuroanatomical framework of the CeA.”
“Objective: To determine the feasibility of endovascular treatment of inflow stenoses in arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) through retrograde venous access catheterization.

Methods: We included all 22 dysfunctional AVFs with arterial inflow stenoses at access imaging between January 2002 and September 2006. Following retrograde venous access puncture, an interventional radiologist intended to cross the arteriovenous anastomosis and advance a catheter into the aortic arch.

10; 95% confidence interval, 0 10-0 76; P < 05)


10; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.76; P < .05).

Conclusions: Endovascular therapy has altered the management of AMI, and there are measurable advantages to this approach. Using endovascular therapy as the primary modality for AMI reduces complications and improves outcomes. (J Vasc Surg 2011;53:698-705.)”
“Background: Venous hypertension is a significant cause of patient morbidity and decreased

quality of life. Common etiologies of venous hypertension include deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or congenital abnormalities resulting in chronic outflow obstruction. We have implemented an aggressive endovascular approach for the treatment of iliac venous occlusion with angioplasty and stenting. The purpose of this study was to determine the patency rates with this approach at a LGK-974 in vivo large tertiary care center.

Materials/Methods: All patients undergoing iliofemoral venous angioplasty and stenting over a 4-year period were identified from a vascular surgical registry. Charts were reviewed retrospectively for patient demographics, the extent of venous system involvement, the time course of the venous pathology, and any underlying cause. Technical aspects of the procedure including previous angioplasty or stenting attempts and presence of collaterals on completion venogram were then recorded. Patency upon follow-up was determined

using primarily ultrasound scans; other imaging methods were used if patency was not clear using an ultrasound scan.

Results: A total of 36 patients (40 limbs) were stented from January 2005 through December 2008. Of these Elongation factor 2 kinase patients, 27 were women (75%). Both lower extremities were involved selleckchem in 4 patients. Thrombolysis was performed in 19 patients (52.8%). Thrombosis was considered acute (< 30 days) in 13 patients (38%). The majority of patients

who had a recognized underlying etiology were diagnosed with May-Thurner syndrome (15 patients; 42%). In 9 patients, an etiology was not determined (25%). The mean follow-up time period in the study population was 10.5 months. One stent in the study occluded acutely and required restenting. Primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 88% (75.2-100), 78.3% (61.1-95.4), and 78.3% (61.1-95.4), respectively. Secondary patency rates for the same time frames were 100% (100.0, 100.0), 95% (85.4, 100.0), and 95% (85.4, 100.0). Better outcomes were seen in stenting for May-Thurner syndrome and idiopathic causes, whereas external compression and thrombophilia seemed to portend less favorable outcomes (P < .001). Symptomatic improvement was reported in 24 of 29 patients (83%) contacted by telephone follow-up.

Conclusion: Iliofemoral venous stenting provides a safe and effective option for the treatment of iliac venous occlusive disease. Acceptable patency rates can be expected through short-term follow-up, especially in the case of May-Thurner syndrome.