90% of sponge’s species in the world are from Demo


90% of sponge’s species in the world are from Demospongiae class. Here in our sampling area we got 100% of Demospongian classes which divided into 5 orders of Haplosclereida (specimen number 1, 4, 18), Dictyocertida (specimen number 2, 3), Handromerida (specimen number 15). The species of our haplosclereida referred to specimen 1 Xestospongia testudinaria, specimen 4 Callyspongia schulzei, specimen 6 Petrosia contignata, specimen 18 Xestopongi aexigua. Our specimen in group Dictyoceratida consisted of specimen 2 (Fascaplysinopsis reticulata). Verteporfin order On the Handromerida orders, only consist of specimen no 15, Aaptos aaptos ( Table 1). The result on our species diversity corresponded with the de Vogd & Clearly 2008 that Aaptos

suberitoides, 8Clathria (Thalysias) reinwardti, Petrosia (Petrosia) nigricans and Xestospongia testudinaria were the most common species in Jakarta bay Indonesia. 9 Antioxidant assay using DPPH method found that only Aaptos suberitoides that had been identified to show strong activity due to IC50 value of <30 μg/mL; meanwhile Fascaplysinopsis reticulata, Acanthella sp, Petrosia contignata and Xestospongia exigua showed moderate antioxidant activity with a IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Xestospongia sp, Callyspongia sp showed a value of IC50 > 100 μg/mL ( Table 2). However, the study was limited to testing coarse extracts; thus, there is a possibility that the pure compounds contained in the extracts have a stronger free-radical muffling activity compared to the extracts themselves. DPPH method was selected since Epacadostat in vivo it is simple, fast, responsive, and requires fewer samples. The sponge extraction Urease recruited minimal 100 g weight yield. Therefore among 20 specimens, only

11 specimens fulfilled the minimal weight. Moreover, 11 crude extracts sponges were tested its toxicity with BST test which are the prescreening process for anticancer drug candidate. The probity analysis for LC50 value among sponge species ranged 61.28 ± 8.61–574.58 ± 29.36. Therefore all of those extracts had high toxicity ( Table 3). The A. salina bioassay developed is a useful tool for preliminary biological and pharmacological activity analysis. A. salina is an organism occurring in brackish and marine waters, adaptable to large ranges of salinity (5–250 g L−1) and temperature (6–35 °C).Moreover, this organism is vital to the inhibitors pelagic ecology of a coastal ecosystem (estuaries, bays, harbors and other near-shore environments). Although it is still considered the basic screening test for cyanobacteria from coastal environments, other sensitive and more specific screening bioassays have been applied, specifically the ones using embryos of invertebrates, viruses and cell lines. As shown in Table 4 the extracts from species number 15, A. suberitoides has the highest toxicity compare to another species which valued level on tumor cell lines (HT-29, T47D and Casky).

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