Body size and shape were plastic and sexually dimorphic, but plasticity did not differ between the sexes, opposite buy Fer-1 to the male-larger turtle Chelydra serpentina. Maternal effects (egg size) were significant on size and shape, suggesting that females increase their fitness by allocating greater energy to enhance offspring growth. Results ruled out the sex-specific plasticity hypotheses in
P. expansa, indicating that SSD and SShD do not derive form differential responses to identical drivers but from sex-specific selective pressures. Our results indicate that differential plasticity does not favor males inherently, nor the larger sex, as would be expected if it was a pervasive driver of macroevolutionary patterns of sexual dimorphism across turtle lineages.”
“Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are one of the new and very promising biocompatible nanomaterials that can be used both as a fluorescence imaging agent and a highly versatile platform for controlled functionalization to target and deliver a wide spectrum of therapeutic agents. Among the remarkable fluorescence
Selleckchem NSC 23766 properties are excellent photostability, emission between 600-700nm, quantum yield of 1 and moderately long fluorescence lifetimes. However the low absorption cross section of fluorescent (N-V)-centers limits FNDs’ brightness. In this work we show that an approach based on the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) may significantly enhance the fluorescence signal observed from a single ND. We demonstrate that organic dyes (fluorophores) attached to the FND surface can efficiently transfer the excitation energy to (N-V)-centers. Multiple dyes positioned in close proximity to the ND facile surface may serve as harvesting antennas transferring excitation
energy to the fluorescent centers. We propose that, with the help of some of the functional groups present on the FND surface, SCH727965 nmr we can either directly link flurophores or use scalable dendrimer chemistry to position many organic dyes at a calibrated distance. Also, the remaining multiple functional groups will be still available for particle targeting and drug delivery. This opens a new way for designing a new type of theranostics particles of ultra-high brightness, high photostability, specific targeting, and high capacity for drug delivery.”
“Constitutive NF-B-K signaling promotes survival in multiple myeloma (MM) and other cancers; however, current NF-B-K-targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identify the interaction between the NF-B-K-regulated antiapoptotic factor GADD45 beta and the JNK kinase MKK7 as a therapeutic target in MM. Using a drug-discovery strategy, we developed DTP3, a D-tripeptide, which disrupts the GADD45 beta/ MKK7 complex, kills MM cells effectively, and, importantly, lacks toxicity to normal cells. DTP3 has similar anticancer potency to the clinical standard, bortezomib, but more than 100-fold higher cancer cell specificity in vitro.