Each variable distribution was tested for normality If assumptio

Each variable distribution was tested for normality. If assumptions for the parametric tests were not met, nonparametric equivalents were employed, including Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher’s

exact tests. We examined the data from a quality improvement perspective: deficiencies that were noted in the data tabulation were identified and, from these, a repeat survey tool was created. We plan to test this new, improved survey tool in the future by combining the information in the current database with an expanded version. Data collection demonstrated an 18% return rate of the survey over the collection period. Of travelers who returned the survey, 31% had traveled to Asia, 30% went to Africa, 20% to South America, and 14% to Central America. Of all travelers, 3.6% went to high-income destinations in Europe and Australia and 1.4% traveled to multiple continents. Illness Proteases inhibitor was reported in 104 (19.8%) of the cohort. The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal related,

reported by 75 (14.3%) of all travelers (Figure 1). Gastrointestinal illness accounted for 76% of all reported illness. The majority of the gastrointestinal cases were diarrheal disease, although nausea and vomiting were also commonly reported. Respiratory illness, accounting for 14% of all illness reported, was the next most common, occurring in 17 (3.4%) of all respondents. Systemic illness, skin disorders, and “other” illness made up the remainder of the reported illness (Figure Selleck Carfilzomib 1). Of those travelers who reported

illness during travel, 30 sought medical attention (29.4% of ill respondents). The destinations with the highest risk of reported illness were South America (27.3% of all respondents); Asia, including India, (21.5%); and Africa with 17.4% (Table 1). There was no difference in the rates of self-reported illness among travelers to Africa, Asia, South America, and Central America (p = 0.37). Serious illness (defined as illness requiring medical attention) occurred in 8.1% of travelers to South America, 5.7% of travelers to Asia, 5.2% of travelers to Central America, and 4.3% of travelers to Africa. Both general illness and serious illness were rarely reported among travelers to developed countries in Europe and Australia. Gastrointestinal Methamphetamine illness, particularly traveler’s diarrhea (TD), was the most common affliction. Despite receiving pre-travel counseling, a significant portion of travelers to developing regions reported diarrhea. Rates exceeded 25% in Africa and South America: 26.9 and 28.3%, respectively (Table 1). Rates of TD were slightly lower in Asia at 20.2%. The differences in TD rates between these continents were not significant (p = 0.30). The duration of travel was found to be a significant risk factor for acquiring illness abroad. We stratified our responses into quartiles regarding durations of travel (Figure 2). Of travelers going abroad for less than 2 weeks, only 11.6% (27/232) developed any degree of illness, whereas 40.

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