g. for cold chain expansion). There were only changes in collaborations in a few specific cases, where the new vaccine introduction led to new or strengthened collaborations. For example, in Rwanda new collaborative links were made with the Ministry of Education due to the
school-based VX-809 delivery strategy. In Kenya, multi-sector working had been established for previous vaccine introductions and had continued for this latest one, but there were also reports of new or improved links with the departments of health promotion and HIV. In Mali the preparatory work for Men A increased collaboration between the agency for social mobilisation, the Ministry of Health and the National Institute for Infectious Diseases. There were few negative impacts reported and these were often only felt to occur in the short term, immediately after the introduction. The majority of health facility respondents Erlotinib in vitro (61%) reported that workload had increased at the time of, or just after, the new vaccine introduction. The effect on workload
seemed to vary between countries; a perceived increase in workload was more common in Kenya than Guatemala or Ethiopia. Some explained that the increase was only temporary, perhaps caused by catch-up strategies, returning to normal levels after a few months. Stock outs of the new vaccine were experienced in all the ‘routine introduction’ case studies (i.e. where the new vaccine was integrated into routine infant immunisation services, as opposed to case studies where the new vaccine was delivered via campaigns), although they were more common in some than others (e.g. in Kenya, 51% of facilities reported stock outs compared to 8% in Ethiopia). In many cases stock outs were reported to be particularly notable in the first few months after introductions, when either demand exceeded expectations or a catch-up strategy had not been incorporated into
forecasting predictions. Stock outs of other vaccines were also reported, but were rarely associated with the new vaccine because they had occurred before the introduction Ribonucleotide reductase as well. Stock outs had broader implications than just access to the new vaccine; interviewees and facility staff explained that when one vaccine was out of stock, the public perceived there to be a generic vaccine stock out and so stayed away from immunisation services even if the specific vaccine that they required was available. “So when it [the new PCV vaccine] is out of stock, it will affect the other vaccines which are available because the common person will just say, ‘The vaccine is not there.’ Then even the other [person] who was supposed to get the other [vaccine] which is available will not come. Unlike the other case studies, no stock-outs of the new vaccines were reported in either country. This may be because their delivery and logistics systems were separate from routine services, or because they were required only for a limited period of time.