However, scene-based information is used to guide search in ways that had no place in earlier models. Search in scenes might be best explained by a dual-path model: a ‘selective’ path in which candidate objects must be individually selected for recognition and a ‘nonselective’ path in which information can be extracted from global and/or statistical information.”
“The aim of the present study was to determine if pre-exposure to high doses of cocaine can subsequently alter the rewarding effects of this drug. Adult male mice received a pretreatment of physiological saline, or 12.5 or 25 mg/kg of cocaine (one injection a day for five days). After an interval of six days
without injections, the rewarding effects of low doses of cocaine (0.5, 1 or 1.5 mg/kg) were evaluated in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Doses of selleck inhibitor 1 and 1.5 mg/kg induced a clear CPP in JIB04 animals pre-treated with saline but were ineffective in those pre-treated with 25 mg/kg of cocaine. Only the dose of 1.5 mg/kg induced CPP in mice pre-treated with 12.5 mg/kg of cocaine. Our results, which reveal a decrease in the conditioned rewarding effects of threshold doses of cocaine, demonstrate that exposure to high
doses of this drug can alter the reward system. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In many biomechanical studies, blood vessels can be modeled as pseudoelastic orthotropic materials that are incompressible (volume-preserving) under physiological loading. To use a minimum number of elastic constants to describe the constitutive behavior of arteries, we adopt a generalized Hooke’s law for the co-rotational Cauchy stress and a recently proposed logarithmic-exponential
strain. This strain tensor absorbs the material nonlinearity and its trace is zero for volume-preserving deformations. Thus, the relationships https://www.selleck.cn/products/BKM-120.html between model parameters due to the incompressibility constraint are easy to analyze and interpret. In particular, the number of independent elastic constants reduces from ten to seven in the orthotropic model. As an illustratory study, we fit this model to measured data of porcine coronary arteries in inflation-stretch tests. Four parameters, n (material nonlinearity), Young’s moduli E(1) (circumferential), E(2) (axial), and E(3) (radial) are necessary to fit the data. The advantages and limitations of this model are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Negative emotional stimuli activate a broad network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal (mPFC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices. An early influential view dichotomized these regions into dorsal-caudal cognitive and ventral-rostral affective subdivisions. In this review, we examine a wealth of recent research on negative emotions in animals and humans, using the example of fear or anxiety, and conclude that, contrary to the traditional dichotomy, both subdivisions make key contributions to emotional processing.