Main Outcome Measures: Success rate, defined as a reduction of pe

Main Outcome Measures: Success rate, defined as a reduction of perforation size of 50% or more to determine relative changes of the perforation size; effect of initial size and location of TM perforation on success rate; and air and bone conduction thresholds to determine air-bone gap measured before treatment.

Results: Randomization

made matching pretreatment perforation size of the 2 study groups impossible, and the initial rate perforation/TM was significantly smaller in the PDGF group. No difference between the 2 groups was found for perforation/TM less than 10%. However, success rate did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (power = 0.8), and the effect of PDGF Selumetinib was found to be small (-2%; standard deviation, +/- 49%). Initial size and position of the TM perforation were not significant factors determining success. Mean air-bone gap for the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz was 22.5 dB.

Conclusion: The topical application of PDGF as an office treatment for chronic otitis media is not a Screening Library molecular weight favorable alternative to surgery.”
“Purpose: To identify the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a psychiatric ward, their levels and association with risk factors.

Methods: This study was conducted in the psychiatric

ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan. Medical records of 415 patients were retrospectively reviewed for pDDIs using Micromedex Drug-Reax software. Logistic regression was applied to determine association of pDDIs with age, gender, hospital stay and number of drugs.


In our study, we identified total number of 825 pDDIs of 126 types, with median number of 1 pDDIs per patient. Overall 64.8% of the patients had at least one pDDI; 27.2% at least one major pDDI; and 58.5% patients at least one moderate pDDI. Among 825 identified pDDIs, most were of moderate (75.6%) or major (20.8%) severity, good (66.4%) or fair (29%)type of scientific evidence; and delayed onset (71%). The most frequent major and moderate pDDIs included haloperidol + procyclidine (127 cases), haloperidol + olanzapine (49), haloperidol + promethazine see more (47), haloperidol + fluphenazine (41), diazepam + divalproex sodium (40), haloperidol + trihexyphenidyl (37), lorazepam + divalproex sodium (34), fluphenazine + procyclidine (33) and olanzapine + divalproex sodium (32). There was significant association of occurrence of pDDIs with hospital stay of 7 days or longer (p = 0.005) and taking 7 or more drugs (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: A high prevalence of pDDIs in the psychiatric ward was recorded, a majority of which were of moderate severity. Patients with long hospital stay and increased number of drugs were more exposed to pDDIs.

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