The low V-oc is attributed to the existence of the narrow bandgap layer. (C) 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“UV light is an established carcinogen, yet evidence suggests that UV-seeking behavior has addictive features. Following UV exposure, epidermal keratinocytes
synthesize proopiomelanocortin (POMC) that is processed to melanocyte-stimulating hormone, inducing tanning. We show that, in rodents, another POMC-derived peptide, beta-endorphin, is coordinately synthesized Selleckchem NU7441 in skin, elevating plasma levels after low-dose UV. Increases in pain-related thresholds are observed and reversed by pharmacologic opioid antagonism. Opioid blockade also elicits withdrawal signs after chronic UV exposure. This effect was sufficient to guide operant behavioral choices to avoidance of opioid withdrawal (conditioned place aversion). These UV-induced nociceptive and behavioral effects were absent in beta-endorphin knockout mice and in mice lacking p53-mediated POMC induction in epidermal keratinocytes. Although primordial UV addiction, mediated
by the hedonic action of beta-endorphin and anhedonic effects of withdrawal, may buy VS-6063 theoretically have enhanced evolutionary vitamin D biosynthesis, it now may contribute to the relentless rise in skin cancer incidence in humans.”
“Trichomes of 32 species of the genus Phlomoides representing its various natural groups were examined using scanning electron (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Trichomes varied among different species of this genus but were identical
among different populations of a certain species, and therefore provide valuable characteristics in delimitation of sections and species. The indumentum might bear the following trichomes alone or a mixture of them: glandular, non-glandular, branched, simple, papillate, and/or smooth on surface. Two basic types of trichomes can be identified: non-glandular and glandular. Both trichome types can be simple or divided. According CT99021 order to their size, simple non-glandular trichomes can in turn be subdivided into three subtypes: short, long and extremely long (longer than 3 mm). Variation in trichome characters appears to have particular value, not only in classification at sectional rank, but also in separating different species of Phlomoides from their relatives. For example, most species of P. sect. Filipendula are characterized by dense extremely long or lanate trichomes. Moreover, P. tuberosa is unique among all studied species by having branched non-glandular trichomes papillate on surface. This result indicates the presence of branched trichomes with papillate surface as characteristic features of indumentum in the type species of this section.