The model structure of SAK showed the significantly reduced numbe

The model structure of SAK showed the significantly reduced numbers of salt bridges and cation-pi interactions as compared with EAK. These results MX69 order suggest that weakening of intramolecular electrostatic interactions of SAK is involved in a more flexible structure which is likely to be responsible for its cold adaptation.”
“Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic

characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young Selleck Pevonedistat ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial

sequence analysis of the 5′UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n = 17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study CCI-779 mouse may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: The authors propose a combined scatter reduction

and correction method to improve image quality in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Although using a beam-block approach similar to previous techniques to measure the scatter, this method differs in that the authors utilize partially blocked projection data obtained during scatter measurement for CBCT image reconstruction. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach.\n\nMethods: A 1D grid, composed of lead septa, was placed between the radiation source and the imaging object for scatter measurement. Image data were collected from the grid interspace regions while the scatter distribution was measured in the blocked regions under the grid. Scatter correction was performed by subtracting the measured scatter from the imaging data. Image information in the penumbral regions of the grid was derived. Three imaging modes were developed to reconstruct full CBCT images from partial projection data. The single-rotation half-fan mode uses interpolation to fill the missing data. The dual-rotation half-fan mode uses two rotations, with the grid offset by half a grid cycle, to acquire two complementary sets of projections, which are then merged to form complete projections for reconstruction.

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