Xylan contains a backbone of β-linked d-xylose residues that can be decorated with acetyl-, l-arabinose, d-galactose, (4-O-methyl-)d-glucuronic acid and ferulic acid. Mannan contains a β-linked d-mannose backbone that can be decorated with α- and β-linked d-galactose and, depending on the origin, can contain single d-glucose residues interrupting the mannose main chain (referred to as glucomannan). Xyloglucan contains a β-linked d-glucose backbone that is decorated with α-linked d-xylose residues. Attached to these residues are d-galactose, l-arabinose and/or l-fucose residues. d-Galactose is the only component common to all three hemicelluloses and is also found in pectin (Pauly & Keegstra, 2010).
The enzymatic hydrolysis of these polysaccharides is subject to significant industrial interest, JQ1 nmr both in the food and feed as well as the wood-manufacturing sector (Bhat, 2000). Amongst microorganisms with
an ability to produce plant cell wall degrading enzymes, fungi are by far the most interesting Vemurafenib in vivo group. Besides certain Trichoderma species, black Aspergilli such as Aspergillus niger are the most important organisms because of their high protein secretion capacity and wide range of cell wall degrading enzyme activity (de Vries & Visser, 2001). In recent years, considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the enzyme systems and genes involved in degrading hemicelluloses to their monomers and also about the further metabolism of the hemicellulose monomers in fungi (Flipphi et al., 2009). With respect to d-galactose, information has been obtained in Trichoderma reesei (Seiboth et al., 2002, 2003, 2004; Karaffa et al., 2006) and Aspergillus nidulans (Fekete et al., 2004; Christensen et al., 2011). In addition to the Leloir pathway, these fungi possess a second pathway for d-galactose catabolism, which, in analogy to the l-arabinose catabolic pathway, uses reductive and oxidative reactions to convert
d-galactose into d-fructose-6-phosphate (Seiboth & Metz, 2011). Although genome information from A. niger has shown the presence of all genes/enzymes needed to degrade d-galactose (Flipphi Docetaxel solubility dmso et al., 2009), only few experimental data are available on its metabolism (Mojzita et al., 2011; Koivistoinen et al., 2012). This may be due to the fact that with the exception of Aspergillus brasiliensis, d-galactose is considered a very poor carbon source for black Aspergilli including A. niger (Meijer et al., 2011), which hampers efforts to cultivate it on d-galactose. Growth on d-galactose containing complex carbohydrates may also be affected, depending on which other carbon sources are present and the ratio of these and galactose in the carbohydrate. The aim of this study was to analyse and understand the physiological background of this phenomenon in A. niger. Aspergillus niger N402 (FGSC A733; cspA1) was used in this study (Bos et al.,1988).