5 The contribution of persons from Central America to the FB popu

5 The contribution of persons from Central America to the FB population with CHB was larger than expected. However, because of the large number of FB in the United States from this region (i.e., 14.4 million), small differences in CHB rates result in large differences in the number with CHB. Few studies were found documenting HBsAg seroprevalence in Central America outside Mexico, and rates in blood donors were used for El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and Belize. Additional seroprevalence data for these

countries are needed. These prevalence estimates have limitations and should be viewed as a systematic attempt to make the best use of available data. First, literature searches Selleckchem GDC 0068 were limited to PubMed, and additional potentially relevant articles may have been found had we also searched EMBASE and CINAHL databases. In addition,

potentially relevant surveys reported in languages other than English were omitted because not all non-English papers were acquired and translated. Another concern is whether the country-specific CHB rates from the meta-analyses are representative of the FB who migrated to the United States and were living there in 2009. Because no seroprevalence data in emigrants were available for more than half the countries, we combined prevalence data from emigrants with data from populations still living in the countries of origin. Nationally representative surveys were included, but were available for only a few countries. Most in-country surveys were done in population subgroups at “average risk” for HBV infection (e.g., pregnant women, school children, Trametinib supplier clerical and factory workers, and military recruits). Biases introduced

by using data from these subgroups likely vary from country to country and depend on factors such as dominant routes of HBV MCE公司 transmission, attendance rates at antenatal clinics and schools, whether military service is mandatory, and the particular array of surveys available for each country. We excluded surveys in persons at higher risk for HBV (e.g., sex workers, injection drug users, and homeless) because these persons are less representative of emigrants. Comparison of RE pooled prevalence rates in emigrants with those in in-country populations did not reveal a systematic bias toward higher rates in either group, although this analysis had large uncertainty. It is likely that emigrants from some countries have lower CHB rates (e.g., because they have higher socioeconomic status and resources to emigrate) or higher rates (e.g., because they lived in refugee camps) than in-country populations. If only data from surveys in emigrants are used for the 52 countries for which data are available, the estimate of the number of FB living with CHB is still significantly higher than estimates from NHANES-based studies (Fig. 2).

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