CNTs are included in the term nano-object, together with nanopart

CNTs are included in the term nano-object, together with nanoparticles and nanoplatelets. This Technical Specification provides a methodology for the quantification of nano-object release from powders as a result of treatment, ranging from handling to high-energy dispersion, by measuring aerosols liberated after a defined aerosolization procedure. In addition to information in terms of mass, the aerosol is characterized for particle concentrations and size distributions. This Technical Specification provides information on factors to be considered when selecting from the available methods for powder sampling and treatment procedures and specifies minimum requirements for test sample preparation, test protocol

development, measuring particle release and reporting data. In order to characterize the full size range of particles generated, the measurement of nano-objects as well selleck screening library as agglomerates and aggregates is recommended in this Technical Specification. In the context of this review, we describe release scenarios as opposed to exposure scenarios. The definition of a release scenario is not unambiguous; however, for the purpose of this review a release scenario is defined as the operational and or environmental conditions

of any treatment or stress of CNTs or CNT composite material during all life-cycle phases that results into the release of CNTs/composite material into indoor environments, e.g. workplace, dwellings, and/or environmental compartments (air, water, soil Bay 11-7085 and sediments), selleck chemicals llc and the set of parameters to describe the type, form and magnitude of release. The aim of this review is to build release scenarios for CNTs in polymer composites. It focuses on multi-wall CNTs, which is the form of CNTs normally used in polymer composites. The general term “CNT” is used throughout the manuscript as a synonym for

multi-wall CNTs. In a first part the available literature on release of CNTs is reviewed, in a second part nine relevant release scenarios are described in detail: Injection molding, manufacturing, sports equipment, electronics, non-consumer applications (windmill blades/fuel system components), tires, textiles, incineration, and landfills. Release of nanomaterials from products and articles might occur throughout the product life-cycle, depending on the circumstances of manufacturing (production and processing), use of the product or article in specific environments, and its disposition at the end of life (Upadhyayula et al., 2012). Although we are defining the release and not a human or environmental exposure, it is instructive to consider the continuum of activities involved in how products are developed, used and discarded or re-used to inform the consideration of potential release scenarios. Fig. 1 shows the life-cycle of products containing CNTs from synthesis of the CNTs, over fabrication of master batch and manufacturing of final product, e.g.

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