In the reverse scan, the reduction peak was not observed, indicating that the system is irreversible. With the CPE-CTS ( Fig. 2c), the voltammogram obtained under the same conditions as those used for the bare CPE shows a considerable increase in the anodic current peak. The increase in the anodic current can be attributed to the pyridinic nitrogen and phenolic
group present in the structure of the chelating agent anchored in the biopolymer chitosan, improving the sensitivity of the electrode for copper determination. When the potential was negatively swept, a broad signal of low intensity centred around −0.10 V was observed. This signal is probably due to the reduction of Cu(II) present in solution or at the electrode surface. The properties of the oxidation peak observed in the stripping Pictilisib in vivo step with the CPE-CTS were A-1210477 mw also investigated as a function of the scan rate. The experimental data indicate that the relationship between the potential peak and the scan rate is characteristic of adsorbed species (Lu, He, Zeng, Wan, & Zhang, 2003). Likewise, the plot of log ip × log v (where ip is the anodic current peak and v the scan rate) showed a linear relationship: log ip = 1.57 + 0.741 log v (r = 0.99), in which the slope observed between 0.5 and 1.0 suggests
that the oxidation process is simultaneously controlled by adsorption and diffusion ( Garay & Solis, 2003). Fig. 3 shows a proposed mechanism for the reactions of Cu(II) on the surface of the CPE-CTS. A similar mechanism has previously been reported (Lu et al., 2003). In the first step (A), the accumulation of copper ions at the modified electrode surface occurs by complexation; in the second step (B), the copper ions in the complexed form are reduced to metallic copper at a controlled-potential Epc; and in the final step (C), the copper is oxidised back to copper ions in the stripping step and the resulting oxidation current peak GNA12 constitutes the analytical
signal. The complexation of copper ions on the electrode surface in the first step occurs due the presence of chelating groups in the molecular structure of the material inserted in the modified carbon paste. The application of Epc = −0.4 V causes the reduction of complexed Cu(II) to Cu0 (step B) and, subsequently, in the anodic stripping voltammetry a current peak appears at potentials between −0.1 and 0.0 V, depending of the Cu(II) concentration. The effect of the pH (4.0–10.0) on the anodic current peak employing the CPE-CTS in a 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 Cu(II) solution was investigated. The maximum current was observed at pH 6.0. For solutions with pH higher than 6.0, the current measured was almost zero.