Effects of race on outcome measures were also assessed, as racial differences in serum 25(OH)D levels have been described previously by our group  and others [14, 15]. Nocodazole We hypothesized that vitamin D status would improve in Selleckchem GS-4997 Soldiers training during the early spring months in the Southeastern US, as solar load increases in this location during the early spring, and that indicators of both bone formation and resorption would be increased in response to the physical activity experienced during military training. Methods Participants This study was approved by the Human Use
Review Committee at the United States (US) Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine and was conducted MI-503 order at Fort Jackson, SC between the months of February and April. Human volunteers participated in this study after giving their free and informed consent. Investigators adhered to US Army Regulation 70–25 and US Army Medical Research and Material Command regulation 70–25 on the participation of volunteers in research. The data provided in this report were collected as a part of a larger study assessing cardiometabolic risk in military recruits . A total of 91 female Soldiers consented to participate in the present study. Body composition and demographic data were collected within one wk of
the start (baseline) and completion (wk 9) of BCT. Hematological data were collected at four timepoints through BCT; at baseline and wk 3, 6, and 9. A total of 71 HAS1 female Soldiers were included in the statistical analysis; volunteers were excluded from statistical analysis if they withdrew from the study, separated from the Army or their baseline or wk 9 data were missing. Demographic characteristics of the volunteers appear in Table 1. Table 1 Female volunteer characteristics
at baseline* Group (n = 71) White (n = 45) Non-white (n = 26) Age, yr 23.1 ± 0.7 23.5 ± 1.0 22.4 ± 0.9 Height, cm 162.7 ± 0.7 163.1 ± 0.8 162.2 ± 1.3 Weight, kg 66.1 ± 1.0 64.9 ± 1.3 68.1 ± 1.4 BMI, kg/m2 24.9 ± 0.3 24.4 ± 0.4 25.9 ± 0.4† Body Fat,% 26.6 ± 0.7 25.2 ± 0.8 28.9 ± 1.0 Race, n White or Caucasian 45 Black or African American 18 Asian 1 Other 7 * Mean ± SEM; † Different from white (P < 0.05). Basic combat training The BCT course is the initial exposure to military training for individuals who enlist in the US Army. It is a 9–10 wk course that consists of both outdoor and indoor classroom training . However, during most portions of the training, Soldiers wear combat uniforms which allow exposure of only the hands, neck, and face to the sun. Physical training is conducted outdoors and is comprised of aerobic (i.e., road marching, navigating obstacle courses, and running) and strength-training activities (i.e., calisthenics, push-ups, and sit-ups).