The case being made for increased administration of tranexamic ac

The case being made for increased administration of tranexamic acid is bolstered by the lack of increased thromboembolic events selleck products observed in the CRASH-2 trial. In Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), a reduction in the number of blood transfusions has also been observed with no increase in symptomatic thromboembolic phenomena [30]. Tranexamic acid may not only be helpful from a biological perspective, but also in a monetary manner, in reducing resources in obtaining and providing blood products [30, 31]. Limitations The main limitations of this study are its retrospective nature, small size of the severely acidotic (pH ≤ 7.02) subgroup, and the changes learn more over time with respect to the use of rFVIIa.

Towards the start of the study period, this drug was dosed as low as 17.1µg/kg, and was considered as a final alternative therapy. However, further to research advances at the time, a shift towards increased doses and earlier use was noted by the year 2002, which continued to evolve until the end of the study period. This may also have had some impact

upon observed results. The pH data reflects the patient’s condition on arrival, which might not represent changes in degrees of acidosis immediately before the administration of the drug. However, the drug was administered buy Cediranib only 3.7h after admission for the severely acidotic group and 6.2h for the less acidotic patients when other standard therapies had failed; thus a worsening pH level is intuitively expected in these clinical situations. The area under the ROC curve was tabulated to be 0.70, indicating potential for a more accurate cutoff for determining

at which pH range the administration of rFVIIa should be more reserved. Finally, we did not have information on all co-morbidities that Isotretinoin may have contributed to mortality. Conclusions Our study found no utility of rFVIIa in treating coagulopathic trauma patients with pH ≤ 7.02 and high rates of bleeding (4 units of RBC/h); and thus restrictions should be set on its usage in these circumstances. Furthermore, the lack of evidence demonstrating any survival benefit of rFVIIa in trauma, in conjunction with the potential increased risk of thromboembolic complications and high monetary costs of its off-label use, renders its utility highly questionable in such situations. Future research should be conducted in finding alternatives to rFVIIa in the management of trauma coagulopathy. We hope our findings will guide physicians when deciding on the inclusion of this drug as part of massive transfusion protocols in trauma. Acknowledgments The authors thank Cyndy Rogers, Bill Sharkey, Ahmed Coovadia and Connie Colavecchia for their contribution in providing trauma registry and blood bank data. This article has been published as part of World Journal of Emergency Surgery Volume 7 Supplement 1, 2012: Proceedings of the World Trauma Congress 2012. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://​www.​wjes.​org/​supplements/​7/​S1.

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