FUNDING The Crenolanib GIST study was supported by multiple grants including P50 CA111236, R01 CA125116, and R01 CA100362 (Roswell Park Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center) and also in part from grant P01 CA138389 (Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston), all from the U.S. National Cancer Institute, Canadian Institutes for Health Research (57897 and 79551), National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (265903, 450110, and APP1005922), the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. DECLARATION OF INTERESTS None declared. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank other members of the ITC-China team for their support.
One acculturation-related experience is everyday discrimination, defined as perceived daily experiences of unfair, differential treatment (Guyll, Matthews, & Bromberger, 2001).

Hispanic youth experience discrimination, and boys report more discriminatory experiences than girls (Lorenzo-Blanco et al., 2011). Moreover, acculturation has been linked with more frequent discrimination in boys and girls (Kam, Cleveland, & Hecht, 2010), and discrimination links with elevated smoking in Hispanic boys (Wiehe, Aalsma, Liu, & Fortenberry, 2010) and girls (Lorenzo-Blanco et al., 2011). Thus, discrimination may explain the link between acculturation and smoking risk. Hispanic youth also experience family conflict as they acculturate to the dominant U.S. culture (C��spedes & Huey, 2008), and family conflict has been linked with increased substance use (Canino, Vega, Sribney, Warner, & Alegria, 2008).

Evidence indicates that Hispanic females are more negatively affected by family conflict than their male counterparts (Sarmiento & Cardemil, 2009). Consequently, increased family conflict as a result of acculturation may explain why girls�� smoking is more affected by acculturation than boys�� smoking. In addition to family conflict and everyday discrimination, acculturation can be accompanied by a loss of family cohesion (Miranda, Estrada, & Firpo-Jimenez, 2000). Family cohesion entails perceptions of family closeness, communication, and support (Olson, Portner, & Bell, 1982). Low family cohesion relates to increased smoking in Hispanic women (Coonrod, Balcazar, Brady, Garcia, & Van Tine, 1999).

Although studies have not documented gender differences in family cohesion among Hispanic youth, non-Latina White female college students reported higher levels of family cohesion than their male counterparts, and their mental health was more negatively influenced by low family cohesion than the mental health of males (Durell Johnson, Lavoie, GSK-3 & Mahoney, 2001). Gendered experiences of family cohesion may further shed light onto why Hispanic girls are more negatively influenced by acculturation than boys.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>