However, recent population-based studies demonstrating that 17% t

However, recent population-based studies demonstrating that 17% to 35%22, 23 and 24 of patients develop CRC before 8 to 10 years has prompted some societies to recommend earlier screening colonoscopy.

The NASPGHN recommends initiation of screening 7 to 10 years after diagnosis.17 The 2012 Second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of UC states that screening could be initiated 6 to 8 years after symptom onset, taking into consideration risk factors such as extent and severity of disease, history of pseudopolyps, family history, and age at onset.7 These recent studies demonstrating early IBD-CRN occurrence underscore the need for considering additional risk factors to optimize initiation of IBD-CRN screening. Risk stratification based on age at disease onset (both young age and

older age appear to confer increased risk23 and 25), extent and severity of disease, family history, and pseudopolyps has been advocated by some of the societies, and is in need of further study for incorporation into the IBD surveillance guidelines. Most society guidelines recommend initiating surveillance 8 to 10 years after disease onset; some recommend considering risk factors that may increase the risk for IBD-CRN, and warrant earlier surveillance. Optimal surveillance intervals have not been defined in prospective studies, and the buy RG7204 societies differ on their recommended surveillance intervals after the index screening colonoscopy. In general, patients with the highest risk of IBD-CRN are recommended for annual surveillance, whereas patients with the lowest risk are TCL recommended for less frequent surveillance intervals, varying from 2 to 5 years. Risk factors for IBD-CRN include concomitant PSC, extensive colitis, active endoscopic or histologic inflammation, a family history of CRC in a first-degree relative before 50 years of age, personal history of dysplasia, presence of strictures on colonoscopy, and, possibly, gender (Table 1). With the exception of gender, all recent guidelines recommend annual surveillance for individuals with these

high risk features (AGA, BSG, NICE, ECCO, CCA). Normal-appearing mucosa on surveillance appears to be associated with a decreased risk of IBD-CRN, reduced to approximately that of the general population.34 The United States GI societies have not yet endorsed lengthening surveillance intervals beyond 3 years. BSG, ECCO, NICE and CCA recommend a risk-stratified approach to cancer surveillance, and increase the surveillance interval to 5 years in the lowest-risk patients (Table 2). Severe active inflammation, prior dysplasia, and strictures are universally accepted as high-risk endoscopic features. Whereas the CCA8 suggests annual examinations for patients with multiple pseudopolyps and shortened colons, the BSG1 and the ECCO18 guidelines consider these patients for colonoscopies every 2 to 3 years.

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