Hu N, Li Y, Nakamura T, Katsumata T, Koshikawa T, Arai M: Reinfor

Hu N, Li Y, Nakamura T, Katsumata T, Koshikawa T, Arai M: Reinforcement effects of MWCNT and VGCF in bulk composites and interlayer of CFRP laminates. Composites: Part B 2012,2012(43):3–9.CrossRef 21. Li Y, Hu N, Kojima T, Itoi T, Watanabe T, Nakamura T, Takizawa N, Inoue T, Cui H, Atobe S, Fukunaga H: Experimental study

on mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nanocomposites – effects of acid treatment, pressured curing, and liquid rubber. ASME J Nanotechnol Eng Med 2012, 3:011004.CrossRef 22. Japanese Industrial Standards Committee: JIS K 7197–1991: Testing Method for Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Plastics by Thermomechanical Analysis. Tokyo; 1991. Competing interests The authors declare that they see more have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions Alamusi performed the numerical simulations, theoretical Small molecule library analysis, EVP4593 mw and experiment. NH, JQ, and YL designed the concept, analyzed the results, and drafted, revised, and finalized the manuscript with partial contribution of CC, SA, HF, YL, HN, LW, JL, WY, TW, CY, and YZ. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Since the first discovery of ferromagnetism (FM) in Mn-doped GaAs [1], great effort

has been paid to search for intrinsic dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with Curie temperatures (T c) at or above room temperature (RT) by doping semiconductors with transition metals (TMs) [2, 3]. During the past few years, room-temperature

ferromagnetism (RTFM) has been reported in TM-doped DMSs experimentally. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the observed FM remains controversial theoretically, which mainly includes experimental artifacts, segregation of secondary ferromagnetic phases, magnetic clusters, and indirect exchange mediated by carriers, electrons, and holes associated with impurities that are related to the observed RTFM [4–7]. Subsequently, RTFM has also been observed in undoped semiconducting or insulating (such as HfO2, In2O3, MgO, ZnO, SnO2, etc.) [8–12], where nominal magnetic ions are not present, and the term ‘d 0 FM’ [13, 14] was suggested to summarize these cases. It is strongly believed that the point defects in semiconductors or insulators have an open-shell electronic configuration, which can indeed confine the compensating charges in molecular NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase orbitals, forming a local magnetic moment. Recently, experiment results show that the size of the lower dimensional systems, such as film thickness or diameter of nanoparticles, has an effect on the vacancy concentration as well as their magnetic behavior [15, 16]. The results are also supported by theoretical works which show the effects of curvature, confinement, and size on various properties of nanocrystals [17, 18]. Obviously, the surface-to-volume atomic ratio will be increased significantly with the decreased size of nanocrystals.

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