Patients had received an average of 7 (range, 3-13) intravitreal

Patients had received an average of 7 (range, 3-13) intravitreal injections before enrollment.\n\nMethods: At the time of enrollment, the inferior fornix of the treated eye was swept with a culture swab before use of povidone iodine; the inferior fornix Fosbretabulin datasheet of the fellow eye was also cultured and served as a control. The culture and sensitivity data from the study and control eyes were analyzed.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: The rate of antibiotic resistance among the conjunctival

bacterial flora of the study eyes and control eyes.\n\nResults: A total of 80 eyes of 40 patients were enrolled in the study; 29 patients used trimethoprim/polymyxin B drops, and 11 patients used fluoroquinolone drops after each injection. A total of 58 bacterial colonies were isolated from 50 eyes. There were no significant differences in bacterial species or culture positivity rates between study and control eyes. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus accounted for 41 of the 58 bacterial colonies (71%). There was a 63.6% resistance rate to fluoroquinolones among study eyes, compared with 32.1% among control eyes (P < 0.05). In the subset of 11 study eyes using fluoroquinolone drops for 4 days after injection, there was an 87.5% resistance rate compared with 25.0% in matched control eyes (P = 0.04).

There was no significant difference in trimethoprim resistance rates between study ZD1839 chemical structure and control eyes: Four of 14 study eyes (28.6%) showed resistance compared

with 5 of 18 control eyes (27.7%) (P = 1.0).\n\nConclusions: Use of fluoroquinolone drops after intravitreal injection leads to increased rates of resistance among conjunctival flora. Repeated use of topical AZD7762 fluoroquinolones after intravitreal injections may have a detrimental effect on eye health by breeding resistance in the bacterial flora.\n\nFinancial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Ophthalmology 2012;xx:xxx (C) 2012 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.”
“Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) is a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by repetitive limb movements during sleep, seen predominantly in the legs but also occasionally involving the arms. These movements may be associated with arousals that can lead to increases in sympathetic tone, resulting in tachycardia and elevated systolic blood pressure. Chronic sustained tachycardia and elevated systolic blood pressure are known to be associated with the development of arrhythmias, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and congestive heart failure. However, the data are not entirely clear on whether untreated PLMS is associated with these cardiovascular risks. This review examines the current evidence on whether PLMS has any effect on the cardiovascular system. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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