Study Design and Setting: To illustrate the usefulness and applic

Study Design and Setting: To illustrate the usefulness and applicability of the PR-tool, we applied it to two systematic reviews. Each included RCT was scored on the 10 PRECIS domains on a scale of 1-5. After this scoring, a 10-domain average for each individual trial and for the systematic review a single domain average and an overall average was calculated.

Results: One review was more pragmatic with an average score of 3.7 (range, 2.9-4.6) on our PR-tool, Daporinad in vivo whereas the other review was more explanatory with an average score of 1.9 (range, 1.1-3.3). The results also suggest that the included studies within each systematic review were rather uniform in

their approach, although A-1210477 molecular weight some domains seemed more prone to heterogeneity.

Conclusion: The PR-tool provides

a useful estimate that gives insight by estimating quantitatively how pragmatic each RCT in the review is, which methodological domains are pragmatic or explanatory, and how pragmatic the review is. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Public access automated external defibrillator (PAD) programs have been shown to be successful in several municipalities. This study sought to determine the usage of and survival rate from a large, urban PAD program in the first 10 years since its implementation.

Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational study from January 2002-2012 conducted in Los Angeles, California, a city with a population of 3.8 million. An incremental rollout resulted in a current total of 1300 automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in place in city-owned buildings this website and other public places, including all 3 area airports, golf-courses, and public pools. All instances where an AED was applied were included in the study.

Results: There were 59 incidents of cardiac arrest with a public access

AED applied, of which 42 (71%) occurred at an airport. 51 (86%) of the patients were male, with a median age of 64 years (interquartile range, 56.5 to 70 years). A shockable rhythm was detected and shocks were applied in 39 (66%) patients, with 30 (77%) of these patients achieving a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Of those patients who received shock(s) by public access AED, 27 (69%) survived to hospital discharge. The youngest survivors were a 25 year old male and a 34 year old female.

Conclusion: While the majority of PAD cases occurred at an airport, there were also survivors from other public locations. AEDs deployed as part of a large PAD program resulted in a very high survival rate for patients with cardiac arrest. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“AimsWe determined whether or not homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socio-economic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit.

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