This study characterised the

functional and structural ch

This study characterised the

functional and structural changes induced by the most commonly used in vivo and in situ models for hypoxia/ischemia-reperfusion in the rat liver. Methods: A range of no-flow, slow-flow and lobar ischemia and reperfusion models were established in the rat liver. Changes following reperfusion were monitored using physiological, biochemical, histological and pharmacological assessments, including bile production, oxygen consumption, lignocaine extraction, enzyme release, and disposition of exogenous markers. Results: Short periods of hepatic ischemia/hypoxia-reperfusion led to minimal changes in liver function whereas long periods of ischemia-reperfusion led to substantial liver injury. The most severe injury was found with the slow flow, reflow model. The formation of cell vacuoles, blebs and focal hepatitis were the most important GSK2399872A liver morphological BAY 73-4506 changes observed as a consequence of ischemia/hypoxia. The major liver histological findings after reperfusion were dispersed apoptosis and local necrosis. Hepatic ischemia/hypoxia-reperfusion was also associated with

significant changes in the hepatic extracellular and intracellular spaces. Discussion: The morphology and function of the liver associated with a range of hepatic ischemia/hypoxia-reperfusion models varies with the duration of the insult and between models. The choice of model is therefore an important consideration in seeking to Pexidartinib research buy resolve any particular hypothesis associated with hepatic ischemia/hypoxia-reperfusion.

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Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) current applied to nerve tissue to treat intractable pain has recently been proposed as a less neurodestructive alternative to continuous radiofrequency lesioning. Clinical reports using PRF have shown promise in the treatment of a variety of focal, neuropathic conditions. To date, scant data exist on the use of PRF to treat myofascial and neuromatous pain.


All cases in which PRF was used to treat myofascial (trigger point) and neuromatous pain within our practice were evaluated retrospectively for technique, efficacy, and complications. Trigger points were defined as localized, extremely tender areas in skeletal muscle that contained palpable, taut bands of muscle.


Nine patients were treated over an 18-month period. All patients had longstanding myofascial or neuromatous pain that was refractory to previous medical management, physical therapy, and trigger point injections. Eight out of nine patients experienced 75-100% reduction in their pain following PRF treatment at initial evaluation 4 weeks following treatment. Six out of nine (67%) patients experienced 6 months to greater than 1 year of pain relief.

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