Our survey reveals a consistent approach in line with the more recent studies.
There are few published data on the optimal management of less common joint bleeds such as hips and shoulders. As illustrated by the literature review, there is little evidence-based information to determine the role of diagnostic procedures (radiological examination, arthroscopy) or adjunctive therapies (aspiration, pain control, physiotherapy, cooling measures, anti-inflammatory agents and embolization) in the management of acute haemarthrosis and our survey shows significant heterogeneity in approach. This lack of evidence is again well reflected in current guidelines, which do not provide standardized and detailed protocols of adjunctive therapies. Such information appears, however, critical INCB024360 research buy in view of recent insights into the pathophysiology of haemophilic arthropathy and the understanding of the blood toxicity. Although non-weight bearing appears to be an important adjunctive measure in all patients, the role of joint aspiration to preserve joint function in patients with major haemarthrosis remains to be clarified. This survey, conducted among a large group of treaters caring for several thousand haemophilia patients, provides interesting information on treatment practices, including target factor levels, duration
of treatment and use of certain treatment modalities. The survey highlights much heterogeneity in the management of acute haemarthrosis across the MG-132 chemical structure EU. The prescribed treatment regimens were usually more intensive, targeting higher factor levels, than those reported in the literature and current guidelines. Only a minority of the treaters considered joint aspiration to be a useful adjunctive treatment.
Because of the limitations of the literature, it is not possible to provide evidence-based guidelines for the optimal management of acute haemarthrosis in patients with Thiamet G haemophilia. However, based on the results of literature review, survey and discussion within the EHTSB, consensus was reached on the following recommendations [the level of evidence (see Table 5) is shown in parenthesis]: Replacement therapy. Recent studies and clinical consensus quote and support initial treatment with 25–40 IU kg−1 FVIII concentrate. In the vast majority of cases, this will resolve with one treatment [26–29]. Higher doses such as 50 IU kg−1 may be necessary for more severe bleeds e.g. post-traumatic. Replacement therapy should be initiated as soon as possible and repeated until satisfactory resolution defined as resolution of pain and recovery of function (grade B, level III). Acute analgesia and anti-inflammatory agents. Immobilization and the use of ice may be helpful in the relief of pain and to resolve the bleed.