Conclusion These observations revealed that carbon assimilation,

Conclusion These observations revealed that carbon assimilation, energy acquisition and arsenic

metabolism of these strains are linked. However, they do not share a common mechanism, since metabolisms required for growth and carbon assimilation are stimulated in T. arsenivorans in the presence of arsenic, but repressed in Thiomonas sp. 3As. Further Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor work is needed to test if a common mechanism occurs to regulate carbon assimilation and arsenic response in other Thiomonas strains. However, to our knowledge, this is the first example of such a link between arsenic metabolism and carbon assimilation. Methods Culture media All strains except T. arsenivorans were routinely cultured on m126 (modified 126 medium) gelled or liquid medium. Medium m126 contains: (g L-1) yeast extract (YE; 0.5); Na2S2O3 (5.0); KH2PO4 (1.5); Na2HPO4 (4.5); MgSO4·7H2O (0.1); (NH4)Cl (0.3), adjusted to pH 5.0 with H2SO4 prior to sterilisation. T. arsenivorans was routinely cultured on a modified MCSM medium (MCSM) [31] with vitamins and trace elements omitted, yeast extract added to a final concentration of 0.5 g L-1 and Na2S2O3 to a final concentration of 2.5 g L-1. Variations of these media included omitting yeast extract and/or thiosulfate. Where no yeast extract was included, trace elements were added, as described previously [32]. Where required, the media were gelled by the addition of 12 g L-1 agar

(final concentration). buy CP-690550 arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) were added to media to the desired concentration from sterile stocks of 667.4 mM of the metalloid ion in ddH2O, from NaAsO2 (Prolabo) and Na2HAsO4·7H20 CP673451 clinical trial (Prolabo) salts, respectively. Physiological tests Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments were performed using gelled media, amended with a range of concentrations of either arsenite or arsenate. Concentrations of 10, 5.0, 2.25, 1.25 and

0 mM As(III) or 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.3 and 0 mM As(V) were tested at Selleckchem Staurosporine 30°C for up to 10 days. The ability of each strain to oxidise arsenite was tested in triplicate, in liquid media amended with 0.67 mM arsenite. Detection of As(III) and As(V) was performed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) as described by Weeger et al. [33]. To test the ability of each strain to grow in the absence of a reduced inorganic sulfur source or organic carbon source, pre-cultures grown in standard media were harvested by centrifugation at 10 K g for 10 min, washed and resuspended in a basal medium (m126 medium with no thiosulfate or yeast extract). These were then used to inoculate the test liquid media and incubated at 30°C for 10 days. Soluble sulfate concentrations were determined turbidimetrically by the formation of insoluble barium sulfate, as described by Kolmert et al. [34]. Bacterial growth in media containing YE was assessed using optical density at 600 nm.

coli position 430 (totally conserved GTAAA) with BioEdit version

coli position 430 (totally CFTRinh-172 mw conserved GTAAA) with BioEdit version [49]. The lengths of the alignments of the fractioned sample and the unfractioned sample were 478 and 457 base pairs, respectively. The 16S rRNA variable regions V1 and V2 were included in the alignments. The variable regions V1 and V2 have been demonstrated to be sufficient to reflect the diversity of a human GI clone library [51]. The alignments were visually inspected, but they were not edited manually

to avoid subjectivity and to maintain reproducibility of the alignments. From the cut alignments, distance matrices were created with Phylip 3.66 Dnadist [52] using Jukes-Cantor correction. Determination of OTUs and library coverage The sequences were assigned into OTUs according to the distance matrices using DOTUR [53], applying the furthest neighbour rule option check details in which all sequences within an

OTU fulfil the similarity criterion with all the other sequences within the OTU. The 98% cut-off for sequence similarity was used to delimit an OTU. The coverage of the clone libraries was calculated with the formula of Good [23] to evaluate the adequacy of amount of sequencing. The Fasta EMBL Environmental and EMBL Prokaryote database searches [54] and Ribosomal Database Project II (RDP II) Classifier Tool [55] were used to affiliate phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis For the phylogenetic analysis, all sequences from the %G+C fractioned sample and the unfractioned sample were aligned and designated into OTUs with a 98% cut-off BIBW2992 solubility dmso as described above. A representative sequence of each OTU and unaligned reference

sequences representing different clostridial groups (Additional file 3) were aligned with ClustalW 1.83 using the SLOW DNA alignment algorithm option (Gap penalty Anacetrapib 3, Word size 1, Number of top diagonals 5 and Window size 5) and cut from the E. coli position 430 (totally conserved GTAAA) with BioEdit version[49]. For a profile alignment, 16S rRNA reference sequences, aligned according to their secondary structure, were selected from the European ribosomal RNA database [56] (Additional file 4) so that they would represent the overall diversity of the faecal microbiota, including the most common clostridial 16S rRNA groups expected, and sequences closely related to the OTUs composed of over 20 sequences. The sequences in this study were profile-aligned against the European ribosomal RNA database secondary structure-aligned sequences using ClustalW 1.83 profile alignment mode and the SLOW DNA alignment algorithm option (Gap penalty 3, Word size 1, Number of top diagonals 5 and Window size 5). The reference sequences were then deleted from the alignment with BioEdit version [49], and the alignment was cut at the E. coli position 430 (totally conserved GTAAA).

Small 2008, 4:1576–1599 CrossRef 15 Qian X-M, Nie SM: Single-mol

Small 2008, 4:1576–1599.CrossRef 15. Qian X-M, Nie SM: Single-molecule and single-nanoparticle SERS: from fundamental mechanisms to biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev 2008, 37:912–920.CrossRef 16. Álvarez-Puebla RA, Liz-Marzán LM: Traps and cages for universal SERS detection. Chem Soc Rev 2012, 41:43–51.CrossRef 17. Lin X-M, Cui Y, Xu Y-H, Ren B, Tian Z-Q: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: substrate-related issues. Anal Bioanal Chem 2009, 394:1729–1745.CrossRef 18. Fan MK, Andrade GFS, Brolo AG: A review on the fabrication of substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and their applications in analytical chemistry. Anal Chim Acta 2011, 693:7–25.CrossRef 19. Cialla D, März A, Böhme R, Theil

F, Weber K, Schmitt M, Popp J:

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): progress and trends. Anal Bioanal Chem 2012, 403:27–54.CrossRef see more 20. Tong L, Zhu T, Li Z: Approaching the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from self-assembled arrays to individual gold nanoparticles. Chem Soc Rev 2011, 40:1296–1304.CrossRef 21. Wang Y, Yan B, Chen L: SERS tags: novel optical nanoprobes for bioanalysis. Chem Rev 2013, 113:1391–1428.CrossRef 22. Haynes CL, Van Duyne RP: Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics. J Phys Chem B 2001, 105:5599–5611.CrossRef 23. Kosuda KM, Bingham JM, Wustholz KL, Van Duyne RP: Nanostructures and surface-enhanced Raman Baf-A1 molecular weight spectroscopy. Compr Nanosci Technol 2011, 3:263–301.CrossRef 24. Baia M, Baia L, Astilean S: Gold

nanostructured films deposited on polystyrene colloidal crystal templates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Chem Phys Lett 2005, 404:3–8.CrossRef 25. Lu L, Randjelovic I, Capek R, Gaponik N, Yang J, Zhang H, Eychmüller A: Controlled fabrication of gold-coated 3D ordered colloidal crystal films and their application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Chem Mater 2005, 17:5731–5736.CrossRef 26. Mahajan S, Abdelsalam M, Suguwara Y, Cintra S, Russell A, Baumberg J, Bartlett P: Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2007, 9:104–109.CrossRef 27. Liu X, Sun C-H, Linn NC, Jiang B, Jiang P: Wafer-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with highly reproducible enhancement. J Phys Chem C 2009, 113:14804–14811.CrossRef Progesterone 28. Liu X, Sun C-H, Linn NC, Jiang B, Jiang P: VX-680 Templated fabrication of metal half-shells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2010, 12:1379–1387.CrossRef 29. Rao Y, Tao Q, An M, Rong C, Dong J, Dai Y, Qian W: Novel and simple route to fabricate 2D ordered gold nanobowl arrays based on 3D colloidal crystals. Langmuir 2011, 27:13308–13313.CrossRef 30. Liu G, Li Y, Duan G, Wang J, Liang C, Cai W: Tunable surface plasmon resonance and strong SERS performances of Au opening-nanoshell ordered arrays. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2012, 4:1–5.CrossRef 31.

However, the photocatalysis properties of CdS microparticles-grap

However, the photocatalysis properties of CdS microparticles-graphene composites (G/M-CdS) have not been really reported previously. Herein, we synthesized the G/M-CdS composites by one-step

hydrothermal method. Its practical application potential in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution was investigated. As indicated previously, Osimertinib organic dyes are widely used in various fields, which are the main organic pollutant source in water. These dyes own the same feature on structure in that benzene rings are included. Therefore, in order to evaluate the adsorption performance and photocatalytic activity of the G/M-CdS, one representative organic dye including benzene rings should be chosen. Rhodamine Mdivi1 mouse B (Rh.B) is a chemical compound and a typical dye, which is often used as a tracer dye within water and is used extensively in biotechnology applications. Thus, Rh.B was selected as model organic pollutant in this work. The results exhibit that the G/M-CdS composites possesses very efficient adsorption and photodegradation ability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to treat wastewater with large CdS particle/graphene

composites. Methods All the chemicals and reagents were of analytical purity and used without further purifications. CdCl2 · 2.5H2O, Na2S2O3 · 5H2O and Rh.B were purchased from Aladdin. Water used in all experiments was doubly distilled and purified by a Milli-Qsystem (Billerica, MA, USA). Transmission electron microscopy S63845 supplier (TEM) images were obtained using a JEOL2010 transmission electron microscope (Akishima-shi, Japan). The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were

performed using a D-MAXIIA X-ray diffractometer (Rigaku, Shibuya-ku, Japan) with CuKa radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å). The concentrations of dye solutions were measured using a UV-2501 spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). Graphite oxide (GO) was synthesized from natural graphite powder (spectral requirement, Shanghai Chemicals, Shanghai, China) according to a modified Hummers method. The G/M-CdS composite was prepared according to previous reports [32, 33]. Typically, 9 mg of GO was dispersed in 30 mL of deionized water by ultrasonication for 1 h. Then 1.5 mmol CdCl2 · 2.5H2O was added followed by 30-min stirring. Subsequently, 1.5 mmol Na2S2O3 · 5H2O was added. After Meloxicam 15-min stirring, the solution was transferred into a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave (50 mL) and reacted under 160°C for 10 h. After cooling to room temperature, the obtained solution was then centrifuged and washed by deionized water several times. Finally, the formed G/M-CdS composites were dried in a vacuum drier. For comparison, CdS microparticles (MPs) were also synthesized under the same reaction condition without adding GO. Adsorption experiments were carried out in the dark. Rh.B was selected as an adsorbate, and G/M-CdS were used as adsorbents.

The bacteria strain B7 was negative for urease and positive for c

The bacteria strain B7 was negative for urease and positive for catalase, oxidase, methyl red test, and nitrate reduction. Starch, chitin, and gelatin were hydrolyzed by strain B7. Acid was produced from D-mannitol, D-gentiobiose, D-xylose, D-Mannose, L-arabinose, mannitol, #VS-4718 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# and glucose. The G + C content of the strain DNA was 54.2%. The major fatty acid of strain B7 was anteiso-C15:0, making up to 50.12% of the total fatty acids, a characteristic of the genus Paenibacillus. The B7 isolate and P. ehimensis IFO 15659T showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences [20], which suggests that they are members of the same species.

This inference was further confirmed by the DNA-DNA hybridization results. The DNA-DNA re-association between strain B7 and P. ehimensis IFO 15659T was 96.3%. All of these characteristics supported the identification of the isolate as a member of P. ehimensis. Thus, strain B7 was named P. ehimensis B7. Purification of antibiotics produced by P. ehimensis B7 P. ehimensis B7 grew

well and produced active compounds in the KL medium. Bioactivity was detectable approximately 20 h after inoculation and reached a maximum level at 96 h. The cultures were separated into supernatant and cell pellets by centrifugation. Before purification, the stability of the antibiotics that were present in the culture supernatant was investigated according to a previously described method [15]. The active compounds were stable at a pH of 2.0 to 8.0, and their antimicrobial activities were also not affected by heat treatment at 40 or 80°C for 1 h. The Selleck CP673451 antibiotics were easily absorbed from the culture supernatant by Amberlite XAD-16 resin. The resin was

washed with distilled water and then eluted with stepwise gradients of aqueous methanol. One fraction that was eluted with 100% methanol exhibited the most Loperamide significant antimicrobial activity. This fraction was extracted with a SPE cartridge and further separated by HPLC. Two active compounds that were eluted at retention times of 28.2 and 26.4 min were obtained and named PE1 and PE2, respectively. The final yield was approximately 17.6 mg/L for PE1 and 12.3 mg/L for PE2. Structure analysis ESI-MS analysis indicated that PE1 had a molecular mass of 1114 Da, and PE2 had a molecular weight of 1,100 Da. The two molecular masses differed from each other by 14 Da, suggesting that they were homologues. Amino acid analysis demonstrated that these two compounds had the same amino acid composition, and both of them contained L- 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (L-Dab), L-leucine (L-Leu), L-isoleucine (L-Ile), L-threonine (L-Thr), D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe), and D-valine (D-Val), with molar ratios of 3:2:1:1:1:1, which further confirmed that they were structural close-related peptide antibiotics.

This treatment was continued for total 3 times and the rats were

This treatment was continued for total 3 times and the rats were sacrificed at day 30 after the last DAPM injection (Figure 2A). The livers were harvested and utilized for DPPIV histochemistry. Additional two groups of normal rats ware given either intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg DAPM/kg every two days for 3 times (DAPM × 3) or single DAPM injection (50 mg DAPM/kg) two days before the bile duct ligation (DAPM+BDL). At the end of 30 days after the

last treatment, rats were sacrificed Blood was collected for serum analysis. Livers were harvested for further analysis. Bile duct ligation Bile duct ligation was performed as previously described [3]. Briefly, the animals were subjected to a mid-abdominal incision 3 cm long, under general anesthesia. The common bile duct was ligated in two adjacent positions approximately buy ISRIB 1 cm from the porta hepatis. The duct was then severed by incision between the two sites of ligation. Immunohistochemistry Paraffin-embedded liver sections (4 μm thick) were used for immunohistochemical staining. For HNF4α and HNF6 staining, antigen retrieval was achieved by steaming the slides 60 minutes in preheated target retrieval solution (Dako Corporation). For CK19 staining the slides were steamed for 20 minutes in high pH

target retrieval solution (Dako Corporation) before blocking. For TGFβ1 staining no antigen retrieval was necessary. The tissue sections were blocked in blue blocker for 20 minutes followed by incubation with pertinent primary antibody

overnight at 4°C. The primary antibody was then linked to biotinylated secondary antibody followed by routine avidin-biotin complex Selleck Oligomycin A method. Diaminobenzidine was used as the chromogen, which resulted in a brown reaction product. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Serum ALT levels in F344 rats. Serum ALT levels after DAPM (50 mg/kg) administration in F344 rats over a time course, where * indicates statistical difference from the 0h control (P ≤ 0.05). (TIFF 3 MB) Additional file 2: HNF6 immunohistochemistry on liver sections. (A) normal control rats (NRL, normal rat liver), (B) rats that underwent Selleckchem Y-27632 DAPM + BDL treatment, or (C) repeated DAPM treatment (DAPM × 3). Brown nuclear staining indicates HNF6 positive staining. No appreciable variation in HNF6 expression was noticed in the treatment versus control groups. Scale bar = 100 μm. (TIFF 3 MB) References 1. Michalopoulos GK, Bowen WC, Mule K, Stolz DB: Histological organization in hepatocyte organoid cultures. Am J Pathol 2001, 159:1877–1887.CrossRefPubMed 2. Michalopoulos GK, Bowen WC, Mulè K, Lopez-Talavera JC, Mars W: 3-Methyladenine mw hepatocytes undergo phenotypic transformation to biliary epithelium in organoid cultures. Hepatology 2002, 36:278–283.CrossRefPubMed 3. Michalopoulos GK, Barua L, Bowen WC: Transdifferentiation of rat hepatocytes into biliary cells after bile duct ligation and toxic biliary injury. Hepatology 2005, 41:535–544.CrossRefPubMed 4.

DC-based vaccination had presented efficient anti-tumor activity

DC-based vaccination had KU-60019 ic50 presented efficient anti-tumor activity in numerous tumor models and in clinical studies. Kono K [17] reported that vaccines using DCs pulsed with HER-2/neu-peptides may represent a novel treatment of gastric cancer patients. DC migration

H 89 in vivo involves three steps: mobilization into the blood, recruitment from blood to peripheral tissues, and remobilization from peripheral to lymphoid tissues. Once there, immature DCs finally differentiate into fully mature DCs to promote immune responses. Although the first step has not received much attention, it is important to understand how this step is regulated in order to understand the pathologic role of DCs in various inflammatory diseases and in tumor development. Chemokines selectively direct the trafficking of subsets of leukocytes into various tissues in homeostasis as well as inflammatory states in vivo [18]. The capacity of DCs to migrate to sites of inflammation, where they capture antigens and subsequently migrate to local lymph nodes, is regulated by the expression of different chemokines and chemokine receptors [19, 20]. Mobilization of DCs and DC precursors into peripheral blood is of particular interest in research related

to NSC23766 in vitro DC-based immunotherapy. We have demonstrated that murine F4/80-B220-CD11c+ DC precursors rapidly appear in peripheral blood when animals are injected i.v. with CCL3 and CCL20 [7]. These F4/80-B220-CD11c+ cells subsequently differentiate into mature DCs when cultured ex vivo with GM-CSF and TNFα. The resultant DCs present the typical morphological characteristics, phenotypes, and antigen-presenting functions of DCs (as assessed in MLR assays). Because Masitinib (AB1010) injections of CCL3 and CCL20 did not induce any detectable inflammatory

response or liver injury in vivo (data not shown), we believe it is possible that CCL3 and CCL20 could be employed to efficiently recruit DC precursors for the purpose of DC-based cancer therapy. There are two considerably important factors involved in DC-based vaccination in the clinic: one is the way to effectively and practically obtain abundant DCs in peripheral blood; the other is a method to effectively modify DCs used as vaccines for tumor rejection and therapy [21]. Successful genetic modification of murine CCL3 and CCL20-recruited DCs with adenoviral vectors was demonstrated. Adenovrial-based gene therapy has many advantages over other forms of TAA delivery [22]. Adenoviral vectors allow local, highly efficient, albeit transient, gene expression, generating high-level, but limited, cytokine production in treated tumors. Adenoviral vectors are transduction agents in a heterogeneously growing population of tumor cells. In this study, murine DCs were transduced using cocultivation with adenoviral vectors.

Another 2 cases with no clinical treatment had a neuroradiologica

Another 2 cases with no clinical treatment had a neuroradiological diagnosis of radiation necrosis and were under observation. Figure 1 Typical MRI scan changes in ACTH adenoma. Coronal T1-weighted postcontrast MRI scan at left and right, obtained in Patient 1, a 30-year-old man who presented with ACTH adenomas and consistent headache

2 years before undergoing GKRS. An enhancing mass lesion is seen in the sella turcia with extension to bilateral internal carotid artery. Patient 1′s serum ACTH level was 381.6 pg/ml, and his blood pressure was over 180/120 mmHg. The patient was treated with MASEP GKRS, and MRI was performed for treatment planning. 26 Gy defined to the 50% isodose line is used to cover the full extent of the pituitary tumor in all three planes. Figure 2 Typical MRI scan changes in ACTH adenoma. No enhancing mass lesion is seen in the sella turcia under the T1-weighted postcontrast MRI scan performed 2 years after GKRS. Patient AL3818 purchase 1′s clinical symptom did improve. His serum ACTH level came down to 40.4 pg/ml, and his Temozolomide solubility dmso blood pressure was controlled within 140/80 mmHg. Figure 3 Typical MRI scan changes in prolactinomas adenoma. Coronal T1-weighted postcontrast MRI scan at left and right, obtained in Patient 2, a 27-year-old woman

who presented with prolactinomas adenomas and amenorrhea-galactorrhea 4 years before undergoing MASEP GKRS. An asymmetrically enhancing mass lesion is seen in the sella turcia with extension to bilateral internal carotid artery. Patient 2′s serum prolactin level was 183.7 ng/ml. The patient was treated with MASEP GKRS twice because of the huge volume of the mass. The second MASEP GKRS was performed 1 year after the first one. The tumor was treated separately with the lower and upper part in order to check details protect the optic chiasma.

MRI was performed for treatment planning. 25 Gy defined to the 50% Cediranib (AZD2171) isodose line is used to cover the lower part of the pituitary tumor in the first treatment, and 18 Gy defined to the 50% isodose line is used to cover the upper part of the pituitary tumor in the second time. Figure 4 Typical MRI scan changes in prolactinomas adenoma. An enhancing mass lesion is seen in the sella turcia under the T1-weighted postcontrast MRI scan performed 1 year after MASEP GKRS, but the volume of the mass had collapsed for more than 50%. Patient 2′s clinical symptom did improve. Her serum prolactin level came down to 14.5 ng/ml, and she got gestation and delivered a healthy baby recently. Figure 5 Typical MRI scan changes in GH adenoma. Coronal T1-weighted postcontrast MRI scan at upper left and right, obtained in Patient 3, a 33-year-old man who presented with GH adenomas and acromegaly 7 years before undergoing MASEP GKRS. (Figure 5) An enhancing mass lesion is seen in the sella turcia with extension into the left cavernous sinus. Patient 3′s serum growth hormone level was 497.3 ng/ml initially.

After an emulsion process, it is observed that the strong (001) d

After an emulsion process, it is observed that the strong (001) diffraction peak of HGOSs is weakened, possibly because the partial oxygen-containing groups and bound moisture are consumed selleck kinase inhibitor through reaction with ammonia and the following water removal process. In the meantime, the (002) diffraction peak was partially recovered, suggesting that the graphene layers rearranged

during the emulsion process. After heat treatment, the diffraction peak of GO disappears, indicating that HGOSs has successfully reduced to HGSs. Figure 2b shows FTIR spectra of GO, HGOs, and HGSs. For GO, the peak at 3,405 cm-1 can be attributed to O-H stretching vibrations of adsorbed water molecules and structural OH groups, and the peak at 1,619 cm-1 can be attributed to O-H bending vibrations. The presence of carboxyl and epoxy PDK inhibitor functional groups can also be detected at around 1,724 and 1,224 and 1,053 cm-1, respectively [17, 22]. These evidences indicate that during the oxidation process of graphite with KMnO4 in the concentrated sulfuric acid, the original extended conjugated π-orbital system of graphite were destroyed, and oxygen-containing functional groups were inserted into carbon skeleton. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that GO nanosheets should be regarded

as ‘amphiphilic molecules’ and perform a surfactant-like function in a water/oil emulsion system [23]. Due to the introduction of acid groups

on the edge sites and basal planes of graphene sheets, GO nanosheets are well-dispersed in alkali solution. LY2835219 molecular weight On the basis of the experimental results, a scheme is presented to describe the formation process of nano HGOSs self-assembled by water/oil emulsion. It includes four steps: (1) the delamination of graphite after intensive oxidation; (2) the homogeneous mixture of GO nanosheets and aqueous ammonia; (3) the formation of a water-in-oil emulsion containing GO nanosheets; (4) and the removal of water and the separation of HGOSs from olive oil. When aqueous Sulfite dehydrogenase ammonia containing GO nanosheets is mixed with olive oil by mechanical agitation, a water-in-oil system is formed. GO nanosheets were supported by the water-in-oil interface and self-assembled around water droplets under the assistance of ammonia. With the removal of aqueous ammonia, the GO nanosheets stacked and condensed at the water-in-oil interface and finally formed a shell structure around the soft template. Figure 2 XRD patterns (a) and FTIR spectra (b) of GO, HGOs, and HGSs. After a thermal treatment in H2, these functional groups derived from the intensive oxidation were eliminated, which can be proved by the disappearance of the peaks at 1,724, 1,619, 1,224, and 1,053 cm-1 while an appearance of a new peak at 1,631 cm-1 (Figure 2b) reflecting the skeletal vibration of graphene sheets [15, 22].

We are also grateful to Dr Martinotti for the

gift of E

We are also grateful to Dr. Martinotti for the

gift of E. coli CFT073 and Carla Rodrigues for statistical analysis support. This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (grants no. PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2011, PTDC/AAC-AMB/103386/2008, EXPL/DTP-EPI/0196/2012 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-027745) and Universidade do Porto/Santander TOTTA (grant no. PP-IJUP2011-277). AN was supported by a Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (PIEF-GA-2009-255512) and an ESCMID research grant 2012. Work in Teresa M. Coque´s lab is funded by grants from the European Union (EVOTAR-LSHM-2011-282004), the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness-ISCIII of Spain (PI12/01581) and the regional government LXH254 chemical structure of Madrid (S2010/BMD2414_PROMPT-CM). References 1. Woodford N, Turton JF, Livermore DM: Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria: the role of high-risk clones in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2011,35(5):736–755.PubMedCrossRef 2. Coque TM, Novais A, Carattoli Selleckchem HM781-36B A, Poirel L, Pitout J, Peixe L, Baquero F, Canton R, Nordmann P: Dissemination of clonally related Escherichia coli strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15. Emerg Infect Dis 2008,14(2):195–200.PubMedCrossRef 3. Johnson JR, Menard ME, Lauderdale TL, Kosmidis C, Gordon D, Collignon P, Evofosfamide purchase Maslow JN, Andrasevic many AT, Kuskowski MA: Global distribution and epidemiologic associations of Escherichia coli clonal group A, 1998–2007. Emerg Infect Dis 2011,17(11):2001–2009.PubMedCrossRef 4. Olesen B, Scheutz F, Menard M, Skov MN, Kolmos HJ, Kuskowski MA, Johnson JR: Three-decade epidemiological analysis of Escherichia coli O15:K52:H1. J Clin Microbiol 2009,47(6):1857–1862.PubMedCrossRef 5. Blanco J, Mora A, Mamani R, Lopez C, Blanco M, Dahbi G, Herrera A, Blanco JE, Alonso MP, Garcia-Garrote F, et al.: National survey of Escherichia coli causing extraintestinal infections reveals the spread of drug-resistant clonal

groups O25b:H4-B2-ST131, O15:H1-D-ST393 and CGA-D-ST69 with high virulence gene content in Spain. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011,66(9):2011–2021.PubMedCrossRef 6. Cagnacci S, Gualco L, Debbia E, Schito GC, Marchese A: European emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli clonal groups O25:H4-ST 131 and O15:K52:H1 causing community-acquired uncomplicated cystitis. J Clin Microbiol 2008,46(8):2605–2612.PubMedCrossRef 7. Gibreel TM, Dodgson AR, Cheesbrough J, Fox AJ, Bolton FJ, Upton M: Population structure, virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Northwest England. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012,67(2):346–356.PubMedCrossRef 8.