A análise dos PL aos 3 meses não substitui a avaliação endoscópic

A análise dos PL aos 3 meses não substitui a avaliação endoscópica, contudo, a nossa série demostra que a avaliação laboratorial poderá ser um fator complementar de eficácia sustentada à terapêutica com AZA. Em conclusão,

com as limitações de se tratar de um estudo retrospetivo e com uma amostra reduzida, a AZA mostrou ser eficaz na maioria dos doentes com DII. A idade avançada no início da terapêutica mostrou ser um fator preditivo de resposta sustentada. O sexo, a duração e o tipo de doença, bem como os PL antes do início da terapêutica, não se correlacionaram com a eficácia a longo prazo. Já os PL aos 3 meses de tratamento correlacionam‐se per si com a R428 mouse eficácia da AZA a longo prazo e, no seu conjunto, são bons preditores do sucesso Proteasome inhibitor terapêutico. Os autores declaram que para esta investigação não se realizaram experiências em seres humanos e/ou animais. Os autores declaram ter seguido os protocolos do seu centro de trabalho acerca da publicação dos dados de pacientes. Os autores declaram ter recebido consentimento escrito dos pacientes e/ ou sujeitos mencionados no artigo. O autor para correspondência deve estar na posse deste documento. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“A doença inflamatória intestinal

(DII) abrange, essencialmente, a doença de Crohn (DC) e a colite ulcerosa (CU). Estas caracterizam‐se por serem doenças crónicas de etiologia multifatorial complexa e de evolução variável, com períodos de remissão e exacerbação. Clinicamente podem manifestar‐se por um conjunto de sintomas intestinais diversificados, extraintestinais

e sistémicos.É conhecido um maior risco de complicações tromboembólicas nos doentes com DII. A incidência de fenómenos tromboembólicos venosos e arteriais habitualmente descrita na DII é de 1‐8%. No entanto, alguns estudos de autópsias relatam Paclitaxel ic50 uma incidência tão elevada como 39%1 and 2. Estudos sobre este tema têm demonstrado que na DII existe frequentemente um estado de hipercoagulabilidade envolvendo todos os componentes do sistema de coagulação3, 4 and 5. A homocisteína é um aminoácido sulfurado intermediário do metabolismo da metionina. A hiperhomocisteínemia (hHcys) leve ocorre em cerca de 5‐7% da população em geral, tem um conhecido efeito trombogénico e apresenta‐se como um fator de risco independente para doença arterial coronária6 e trombose arterial e venosa7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. A elevação dos níveis de homocisteína pode resultar de alterações genéticas nas enzimas envolvidas no metabolismo da metionina ou homocisteína15 ou de fatores nutricionais16.

Up to 6 attractor memories could be simultaneously augmented and

Up to 6 attractor memories could be simultaneously augmented and hence Selleckchem 5 FU periodically reactivated (Lundqvist et al., 2011 and Lundqvist et al., 2012). We used the SPLIT simulator developed for simulations of large, biophysically detailed network models, which can run on a single processor as well as on massively parallel machines (Hammarlund and Ekeberg, 1998). The presented model has previously been scaled up to the size of 22 million neurons and 11 billion synapses on a supercomputer (Djurfeldt et al., 2008). The network simulated here typically consisted of 14,553 cells connected by 1.8 million synapses. Simulations were typically performed on

128 nodes of the supercomputer at the Center for Parallel Computers at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The simulation time step was 0.1 ms and it took 81 s to simulate 1 s of network activity. Stem Cell Compound Library cell assay Local field potentials (LFPs) were estimated by calculating the average soma potential for all pyramidal cells in local populations at every time step, similarly to the approach adopted by Ursino and La Cara (2006). Although LFP is more directly linked to the synaptic activity (Logothetis, 2003), the averaged membrane potentials have been reported to be correlated with LFPs (Okun et al., 2010). In particular,

low-pass-filtered components of synaptic currents reflected in membrane potentials appear to carry the portion of the power spectral content of extracellular potentials that is relevant to our key findings (Lindén et al., 2010). As regards the phase

response of estimated extracellular potentials, the delays of different frequency SPTBN5 components are spatially dependent (Lindén et al., 2010). However, irrespective of the LFP synthesis, phase-related phenomena reported in this study remain qualitatively unaffected since they hinge on relative rather than absolute phase values. All analyses in this study were performed using MATLAB. In the first step, LFPs were subsampled at the frequency of 1 kHz and correspondingly, spikes obtained in the majority of cases from pyramidal cells, except the analysis of the preferred phase of firing of basket cells, were binned at 1 ms resolution. Then a low-pass filter was applied to the LFP signals with the cut-off frequency of 250 Hz in the forward and reverse directions to avoid any phase distortions. The analyses carried out in this work fall into the following categories: spectral quantification, estimation of coherence and phase locking, analysis of spike timing with respect to LFP phase, instantaneous firing rate estimation, spiking variability quantification and examination of the spatiotemporal structure of spiking activity.

Five similar booster injections

were made 21, 36, 51, 66

Five similar booster injections

were made 21, 36, 51, 66 and 76 days later. Blood samples were drawn 1 week after the last injection. As a control, rabbits were also immunized with liposomes not containing Ibrutinib synthetic peptides, prepared as described previously [9]. Falcon flexible microtitration plates (Becton Dickinson France S.A.) were coated overnight at 4 °C with 5 μg/ml mut-II or L. muta muta whole venom in 0.02 M NaHCO3 buffer, pH 9.6, as described previously [3]. Absorbance values were determined at 492 nm with a Titertek Multiscan spectrophotometer. Tests were done in triplicate and the values represent means of experiments. Standard deviations are represented by error bars. Results were evaluated by Student’s t-test using Sigma Plot 10.0. In all cases, differences were considered significant at P < 0.05.

Hemorrhagic activity was assayed using the Kondo method [25] and adapted by Sanchez et al. [36]. Aliquots of L. muta muta venom in 100 μl physiological saline, or saline alone, were injected into the dorsal shaved skin of the non-immunized rabbits. Twenty-four hours later, the rabbits selleck inhibitor were euthanized and the back skin was totally removed in order to photograph and measure the hemorrhagic lesions. One minimum hemorrhagic dose (MHD) was defined as the dose which causes a hemorrhagic lesion 10 mm in diameter. The MHD of L. muta venom used throughout this study was 20 μg. For the in vivo neutralization assays of the hemorrhagic activity of L. muta venom, the immunized and control rabbits were challenged with L. muta venom

30 days after the last immunization by intradermal injection of an amount equivalent to 1 MND/kg. In order to map the epitope recognized by the neutralizing monoclonal antibody LmmAbB2D4, membrane-bound peptides of 15 amino acids, spanning the entire sequence of mut-II, were for probed with LmmAbB2D4. Only background reactivity was observed at the highest concentration of the polyclonal antibody (10 μg/ml; Fig. 1B – lower panel). As a control for peptide quality, the 15-mer peptides (Fig. 1A – upper panel) were reactive when probed with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum produced against mut-II. The phage-display system of expression of randomly generated peptides can identify peptides mimicking discontinuous epitopes (mimotopes). To identify peptides that would bind to LmmAbB2D4, four different phage libraries were screened, two of which expressed linear peptides of either 15 (X15) or 30 amino acids (X30), whereas the other two displayed peptides including either one or two fixed cysteines and whose sizes were 17 (XCX15) or 12 amino acids (XCX8CX). A significant enrichment of phage binding to the target antibodies was obtained after three rounds of biopanning (data not shown). Of approximately one hundred phage clones randomly picked from the third round of selection, seventeen clones were selected. The DNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence were determined (Fig.

, 2005) In addition, emphysema was observed

8 and 16 wee

, 2005). In addition, emphysema was observed

8 and 16 weeks following cigarette smoke exposure in the knockout mice, whereas no pathological abnormalities were observed in wild-type mice. Similarly, Gebel et al. confirmed the protective nature of Nrf2 against the development of emphysema in cigarette smoke exposed wild type mice versus Nrf2 knockout mice, and further investigated the relationships between Nrf2 and inflammation and cell cycle arrest ( Gebel et al., 2010). Comandini et find more al. conducted a meta-analysis of eight genomic studies on the mechanisms of smoke-induced lung damage in healthy smokers, COPD smokers and non-smokers ( Comandini et al., 2010). They found the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response Pathway to be the most significantly altered pathway in healthy smokers compared to non-smokers. In contrast, the Nrf2 pathway was not significantly differentially expressed in COPD smokers, indicating that Nrf2-regulated genes play a key role in protecting against Selisistat solubility dmso the toxic effects of TSC. The authors suggest that the response of Nrf2-regulated

genes may potentially be used as a biomarker for COPD susceptibility. In the present study, we found that the NRF2-Mediated Oxidative Stress Response Pathway is also an important component of the toxicological response to MSC. IPA analyses identified it as one of the top five pathways for both time points and all concentrations of MSC, except for the lowest concentration at the 6 + 4 h time point (Table 3). A comparison of the Nrf2 pathway at the 6 h time point for the highest exposure concentrations of TSC and MSC shows many similarities ( Fig. 6). The Nrf2 gene itself was up-regulated along with several basic leucine zipper family transcription factors such as Jun, Atf4, and Maff. In addition, several antioxidant and stress response proteins such as Nqo1, Prdx1, Hmox1, Baf-A1 ic50 Sod, Txnrd1, Herpud1, Dnajb1/9 were up-regulated. Other studies have also noted that these genes are up-regulated following cigarette smoke exposure ( Bosio et al., 2002, Iizuka

et al., 2005 and Rangasamy et al., 2004). However, a notable difference between the two condensates studied here is that Gclc and Gclm, the rate limiting enzymes in glutathione synthesis, were significantly up-regulated by TSC (approximately 4 fold), but were not statistically significantly affected in MSC exposed cells (approximately 1.8 fold up-regulated). Furthermore Gsta genes were up-regulated in TSC and Gstm genes were down-regulated in MSC exposed cells. These findings were further confirmed by the significant up-regulation of the Glutathione Metabolism Pathway in tobacco exposed cells at all times and concentrations and the significant down-regulation of this pathway in marijuana exposed cells, particularly at the high concentration at the 6 + 4 h time point. These results suggest that exposure to MSC elicits more severe oxidative stress than exposure to TSC.

(2008), Thomson et al (2012) The models were classified accordi

(2008), Thomson et al. (2012). The models were classified according

to the three following sub-groups: (1) bacterial infection, (2) lung injury and fibrosis, and (3) Th2 response (allergic airway inflammation). Clustering of the models using PAM is shown in Fig. 2A. Two CBNP exposure conditions (day 28 low and medium doses) did not cluster with other CBNP exposure condition or other disease models, likely due to lack of response. Models of bacterial infection did not cluster with other disease models or JQ1 datasheet CBNP exposure. PAM analysis revealed an association between CBNP exposure, Th2 responses and lung injury/fibrotic responses. Although Th2 response and lung injury/fibrotic responses were more closely associated with one another than with CBNP exposure, PAM analysis revealed that CBNP exposure was more closely related to lung injury/fibrotic responses than to Th2 responses, which is also supported by probability statistics comparing CBNP exposure with each disease sub-group (Fig. 2B). In order to examine

commonalities and discrepancies between disease models and CBNP exposure in more detail, functional analysis was conducted on (1) genes that were in common between CBNP and each disease model and (2) genes that were unique to CBNP. The number of significant genes used for each analysis is presented in Supplemental RO4929097 solubility dmso Table 3. The DAVID biological functions are summarized in Table 3. This analysis demonstrates that inflammation was common between most models at all time-points (excluding Aspergillus extract). On day 1, commonalities for CBNP exposure were observed with bacterial infection models (i.e., due to the acute phase response) and with injury and fibrosis models (i.e., due to changes in tissue morphogenesis related genes). Day 3 revealed inflammation and cell cycle disturbances in most of the models. However, CBNP responses were more similar to bleomycin-induced lung injury as shown by the high degree of overlapping biological Bay 11-7085 functions on day 3 ( Table 3). CBNPs triggered an adaptive immune response on day 28 that was also only apparent in lung injury and fibrosis models. Gene expression profiles

from the high dose CBNP-exposed mice vs. control were analysed in NextBio to identify closely related respiratory disease profiles in humans. On all post-exposure days, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and injury of lung, were identified as the top three respiratory diseases associated with CBNP exposure. Interestingly, fibrosis was identified as a predicted disease outcome of CBNP exposure that increased considerably with time (e.g., score of 14 on day 1, 35 on day 3 and 45 on day 28). In order to examine the molecular mechanisms that may be involved in fibrosis in more detail, a meta-analysis was completed using curated studies within NextBio that identified fibrosis as a phenotype.

Cardinale et al show that variation in cloning strain background

Cardinale et al. show that variation in cloning strain background can affect expression of a three gene probe cassette in E. coli that is largely explainable by changes in host growth and ribosomal availability ( Figure 3A) but that when that same cassette

is passed into 88 deletion strains of E. coli BW25113 there seem to be more specific effects of each gene deletion on circuit performance ( Figure 3B) [ 55••]. Specific metabolic and signaling genes, when deleted had large positive and negative effects (respectively) on expression of all three fluorescent proteins of the probe while a couple differentially affected expression of at least one of the proteins. Key subsystems that generically and specifically affect heterologous circuit function were thereby identified and mapped to subelements of the synthetic circuit. In a complementary approach, Woodruff et al. check details [ 56] created a library of millions of overexpressed genome fragments in an ethanol production strain and subjected it to a growth selection to quantitatively map variation of host genes to improvements in ethanol tolerance and production. They identified that membrane and osmotic stress were important limiting issues for the strain and that a single host gene that when overexpressed led up to a 75% improvement

CX-5461 cost relative to the parent production strain. Other genome scale techniques for measuring macromolecular interaction and metabolic profiles will add more data that should aid in improving strain performance. Formal methods to transform these data into models of biological new parts and their interactions suitable to drive design decisions remains to be developed. Host and environmental context are intimately linked because the major (unintended) effects of environment on a heterologous circuit are likely to arise via effects on host

physiology. Sometimes, if the environment of deployment is known and static one can design or select circuits that operate well under those conditions. In metabolic engineering, there is the oft-cited problem that the biosynthetic pathways engineered in the laboratory often work poorly in the scaled-reactors that are necessary for economic production [ 57 and 58]. To demonstrate some issues, Moser et al. characterized how small synthetic circuits operate in different industrially relevant conditions and showed how changes in fermentation process affect host growth and resources thereby differentially affecting synthetic logic circuits in the host cell [ 59]. A recent industrial example of the challenge is the conversion of biosynthetic production of 1,3-propanediol, a precursor for many industrial products, from ‘specialty’ to commodity scale required the optimization of over 70 genes off-pathway before sufficient production in industrially relevant environments was achieved [ 60].

Only three studies have been published to date (Mahmood and Borov

Only three studies have been published to date (Mahmood and Borovsky, 1992, Fazito do Vale et al., 2007 and Moraes et al., 2012). In one of these studies, we described, for the first time, the anatomy of the digestive tube of L. longipalpis larvae and determined the pH along the midgut ( Fazito do Vale et al., 2007). In addition, we investigated how proteins are digested from the beginning of this process in the alkaline anterior midgut (pH ⩾ 9.0) to its end in the acidic posterior midgut (pH ⩾ 6.5) learn more ( Fazito do

Vale et al., 2007). The aim of the present study was to study carbohydrate digestion by L. longipalpis larvae. The main glycolytic activities were identified and partially characterized. Special attention was given to the compartmentalization of the main carbohydrases found to provide an overview of the different stages of digestion. www.selleckchem.com/products/BEZ235.html Taking into account the hydrolytic activities encountered in the

larval intestine and the material ingested by the larvae, we offer a discussion about the origin and the type of carbohydrates usually ingested by the larvae in nature. All experiments were performed using fourth instar larvae from a colony of L. longipalpis (Teresina/Piauí state, Brazil) maintained according to the methodology described by Modi and Tesh (1983). The standard larval diet was that proposed by Young et al. (1981). The food offered to the larvae (from the second to the fourth instars) was supplemented with a mixture of powdered cereals prepared with grains of wheat, barley and oats (Neston from Nestle®). In this case, care was necessary to avoid excessive growth of fungi. Homogenates of the total midgut were prepared by dissecting the larvae in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl. The dissected midguts were washed in 300 mM NaCl containing 0.03 mM CaCl2 and transferred to the same solution in a micro centrifuge

Neratinib concentration tube to be homogenized with an abrasive micro homogenizer made of glass. At least 15 midguts were pooled for each sample preparation. All material was stored in an ice bath during the procedures. The supernatant obtained after centrifugation for 10 min at 14,000×g at 4 °C was used in the experiments. The assays were performed by mixing 100 μL of 1.5% (w/v) starch (Sigma No. S9765), glycogen (Sigma No. G8751) or dextran (Sigma No. D1662) (each dissolved in water) in a micro centrifuge tube with 150 μL of 0.1 M buffer. The reaction was started by adding 50 μL of the sample. Each 50 μL aliquot of sample contained the equivalent of 1 midgut. This incubation mixture, comprising a final volume of 300 μL, was incubated at 30 °C for 1 h. The reducing carbohydrates released from the substrate by the action of the amylase were quantified using the dinitrosalicylic acid method (Miller, 1959). After the incubation, 500 μL of the dinitrosalicylic reagent (DNS reagent) was added to the tubes, which were then heated in boiling water for 10 min.

Question 3 How early should immunosuppressives be introduced in

Question 3. How early should immunosuppressives be introduced in the management of Crohn’s disease and which regimen should be used? Draft answer modified by National Meeting Working Group (1) Initiation of immunosuppressives early in the disease course (at first flare needing steroids) should be considered (level of evidence: 1b; grade of recommendation: A) Question 4. What is the best dosing strategy for immunosuppressives

in Crohn’s disease, in terms of: starting and maximum doses, duration, dose escalation/de-escalation (when? rate?), which immunosuppressive first? Draft answer modified by National Meeting Linsitinib in vitro Working Group (1) The most effective doses appear to be 2.0–3.0 mg/kg for azathioprine and 1.0–1.5 mg/kg for 6-mercaptopurine administered orally, based on reported clinical trials. There is no evidence to support dose de-escalation (level of evidence: 1a; grade of recommendation: A). Question

5/Part 1. How should the efficacy of a treatment be monitored clinically and biologically? What is the definition of treatment failure? When should the effect of treatment be evaluated? Draft answer modified by National Meeting Working Group (1) Remission of signs and symptoms is the most widely clinically accepted endpoint for treatment efficacy. The Crohn’s Disease Alpelisib Activity Index and Harvey Resveratrol Bradshaw Index are accepted tools for quantification of efficacy in clinical trials, the latter is simple enough to allow its use in clinical practice (level of evidence: 5; grade of recommendation: D). Question 5/Part 2. Should mucosal healing be assessed? Draft answer modified by National Meeting Working Group (1) Achievement of mucosal healing in Crohn’s disease leads to prolonged steroid-free remission, fewer abdominal surgeries and may reduce hospitalizations (Level of

Evidence: 2b – remission; Grade of recommendation: B); (Level of Evidence: 4 – surgery; Grade of recommendation: C); (level of evidence: 2b – hospitalization; grade of recommendation: B). Question 6. If azathioprine and a biologic are given in combination, should any of the treatments be stopped? Which treatment should be stopped to achieve the smallest reduction in efficacy? When should that treatment be stopped? Draft answer modified by National Meeting Working Group (1) In patients with moderately active Crohn’s disease naïve to immunosuppressive therapy, the combination of an immunosuppressive with infliximab improves rates of steroid-free remission up to 1 year after initiation of therapy (level of evidence: 1b; grade of recommendation: A). Question 7.

Of 122 primary human resected PDAC, fascin was absent from normal

Of 122 primary human resected PDAC, fascin was absent from normal ductal and acinar tissue, but prominent in PDAC cytoplasm (Figure 1A). Ninety-five percent of human PDAC expressed fascin and a high histoscore significantly correlated with decreased overall survival ( Figure 1B), PS-341 in vitro high tumor grade ( Figure 1C; median histoscore 104.4 vs 72.8; P < .05), and vascular invasion ( Figure 1D; median histoscore 94.5 vs 62.2; P < .04). Fascin levels did not correlate with lymph node status, tumor stage,

perineural invasion, and lymphatic invasion (data not shown). In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, high fascin expression only reached borderline significance as an independent predictor of poor survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.663 (95% confidence interval: 0.44−1; P = .05) ( Supplementary Table 1). Importantly, fascin levels strongly

correlated with time to recurrence, indicating potential importance as a predictor of tumor dissemination ( Figure 1E; P < .0005). To explore a functional role of fascin, we used a mouse model of pancreatic cancer (KPC mice) recapitulating both pre-invasive PanIN (grade 1−3) and invasive, metastatic PDAC.4 Wild-type ducts and acini and PanIN1−2 from 10-week-old KPC mice were negative for fascin (Figure 1F). Around 6% of PanIN3 and 100% of PDAC (both 10-week and advanced tumors) ( Supplementary

Table 2) were fascin positive ( Figure 1F) small molecule library screening and fascin was expressed in both well and poorly differentiated areas (data not shown). Fascin null mice had normal-sized pancreata with no apparent changes in tissue structure or proliferation (Supplementary Figure 1). Although fascin is weakly expressed ADP ribosylation factor by a few cells in the islets of Langerhans (Figure 1F), fascin null mice had normal peripheral blood levels of several markers indicating normal pancreatic function ( Supplementary Table 3). Development of PanIN in KrasG12D or KrasG12D and p53R172H expressing pancreata was not changed by loss of fascin ( Supplementary Figure 2). Loss of fascin also did not affect progression, morphology, or proliferation of cells in an acute model of pancreatitis using cerulein injection ( Supplementary Figure 3). However, by 21 days of cerulein treatment, fascin was detected in stroma and epithelium of PanIN of KC animals ( Supplementary Figure 3). However, loss of fascin did not affect the numbers of monocytes, lymphocytes, or neutrophils recruited to acute PanINs, revealing no gross abnormalities in the immune response to PanIN in the fascin null mice ( Supplementary Figure 3E and F). In summary, fascin expression was detected in a minority of PanIN3 and all PDAC and loss of fascin did not detectably affect pancreas development or PanIN.

Fungos como do gênero aspergillus são encontrados nas placas, pro

Fungos como do gênero aspergillus são encontrados nas placas, provavelmente vindos do óleo mineral contaminado usado para sobreposição das gotas do meio de cultura. São fungos ambientais contaminantes do ar os gêneros aspergillus e penicillium. 14 Em medicina reprodutiva existe risco significativo de contaminação cruzada durante a criopreservação de gametas ou embriões. Em estudo de revisão, conclui‐se que há um risco negligenciado de contaminação cruzada em condições de FIV.15 Encontrou‐se relação

entre infertilidade e vírus da hepatite C em um grupo de casais inférteis, com prevalência de 3,2% para as mulheres e 3,6% para os homens,16 que pode ser transmitida de uma mulher para outra pela contaminação transvaginal por equipamentos ou dos pais para o concepto. Recomendou‐se que pacientes inférteis fossem rastreados antes de submetidos PD0325901 mouse a técnicas de reprodução assistida. Kastrop et al. (2007)14 BTK inhibitor descrevem incidência de 0,67% de contaminação nos LRH europeus. A amostra envolveu

mais de 13.000 casos.14 Um estudo de prevalência no Brasil encontrou 4,8% de contaminação nas placas por bactérias e fungos, considerando a contaminação como fator de contribuição do fracasso em reprodução assistida.17 Com a prevalência de contaminação conhecida e com os gêneros identificados, poder‐se analisar a interferência desta sobre o sucesso da reprodução assistida, pois o tipo de contaminação parece variar os resultados. Autores também divergem em seus resultados. Selleckchem Paclitaxel Candida albicans aumentou a fragmentação do DNA e apoptose, danos que podem ter causado fracasso após a fertilização. 19 Outros autores relatam que nascimentos após a transferência de embriões inseridos em meios contaminados com leveduras ocorrem dentro das taxas normais de freqüência para reprodução assistida,

concluindo que a contaminação pelo fungo não é razão para cancelar a transferência de embriões. 11 A primeira consequência observada, quando contaminados com patógenos, está na redução da formação de embriões viáveis para transferência. Os embriões podem não sobreviver nas primeiras clivagens, apresentar teratogenia, ou simplesmente não conseguirem implantar no útero. Também podem ocorrer síndromes que comprometam a saúde fetal, trazendo a possibilidade de aumento de natimortos, prematuridade, ou nascimento de conceptos pequenos para a idade gestacional, descritos em estudos com bovinos onde a fertilização assistida é amplamente utilizada.18 Em outra vertente, existe o risco de infectar o organismo materno, com consequências temporárias ou definitivas. Os procedimentos de controle de qualidade devem ser sempre atualizados para minimizar esses riscos, já que a contaminação pode ser vertical (dos progenitores para o embrião), ou lateral (de uma mulher para outra).