For example, in the specific case of an environmental monitoring

For example, in the specific case of an environmental monitoring application, some nodes may be equipped with temperature sensors, other nodes with humidity sensors, but all bear similar communication devices and processing capabilities; it should be noted, however, that heterogeneous networks have been conceived as well, where, e.g., a large number of nodes perform sensing, a few expensive nodes provide data fusion and filtering, and the node differences in terms of computational capabilities and links are exploited for networking purposes [2].As will be made clearer in the following sections, these three aspects represent canonical issues that are kept in focus during the design of the (department-wide) testbed, with the implicit aim of being modularly extensible to wider (city-scale) scenarios.

WSNs can offer access to an unprecedented quality and quantity of information that can deeply change our ability to sense and control the environment. The fields of application of WSNs cover a wide variety:home automation (domotics) and energy management systems [3�C6]: devoted to the monitoring and control of the environment of private homes for the comfort and security of their residents; this, especially in large buildings, may also include the management of their energy resources;assistive domotics [7], i.e.

, home automation for the elderly and disabled, where the general features of home automation are ancillary to those implied by regularly monitoring specific physiological and medical parameters of the residents;industrial automation [8]: aiming more specifically at the analysis and control of the environment (in terms of temperature, humidity, light, but also chemicals, vapors, radiation) in work places presenting critical issues of potential danger, such as, to cite a few, greenhouses, AV-951 mechanical laboratories, chemical plants and refineries, foundries; this category also includes simpler issues such as the management and conservation of goods in large stores and warehouses;surveillance [9]: in terms of networks of cameras, microphones, access control devices, intrusion detection systems, and so forth. The integration and fusion of the information provided by single devices, using different technologies and from different physical points of view, allow a more complete (if not exhaustive) reconstruction of the whole scene of interest.

e equitable refinements of the initial partition given by the col

e equitable refinements of the initial partition given by the coloring. Elements of the search tree are called nodes so as not to confuse them with the vertices of the graph. The root of the search tree is the equitable refinement of the initial coloring. Branches are formed by individualizing vertices and finding successive equitable refinements after each indi vidualization step. Each movement down the search tree corresponds to individualizing an appropriate vertex and finding the equitable refinement of the resulting parti tion. Thus, each node at distance k from the root of the search tree can be represented by an ordered k tuple of vertices, with the ordering corresponding to the order of vertex individualization. The leaves of the search tree correspond to discrete parti tions.

Thus, each terminal node has a natural associa tion with a permutation of the vertices of the graph. The key idea is that automorphisms of the graph cor respond to similar leaves in the search tree. To be more precise, we say that two permutations, ��1 and ��2, of the vertices of the graph are equivalent if there is an auto morphism of the graph, g such that ��1 ��2 g Then as g is a permutation of the vertices, it can also be considered a permutation of the nodes of the search tree. It can be shown that if �� is a node of the search tree, then ��g will be as well. In fact, much more is true, the two sets of leaves of the search tree derived from the two nodes �� and ��g, respec tively, will be equivalent to each other. In other words, ming from a given node �� in the search tree, and we can ignore the terminal nodes stemming from ��g.

In this way, knowledge of automorphisms can be used to eliminate the AV-951 need to examine parts of the search tree. Nauty discovers automorphisms in the following way. The algorithm is based on depth first search, it immedi ately starts generating terminal nodes. Upon producing a terminal node, Nauty applies the corresponding per mutation to the original graph and then calculates the resulting adjacency matrix. Two adjacency matrices pro duced in this way are equal if and only if the corre sponding two permutations, ��1 and ��2, are equivalent. In this case, there exists an automorphism g of the graph such that ��1 ��2 g. The Nauty algorithm then calculates g by evaluating ? 21 ?1. As such automorph isms are discovered, Nauty can prune the size of the search tree as detailed above.

Nauty also uses an indicator function to further prune the search tree. An indicator function is a map defined on the nodes of the search tree that is invariant under automorphisms of the graph. This function maps the nodes into a linearly ordered set Then Nauty skips over nodes of the search tree where the indicator function is not minimal. As the indicator function is invariant under automorphisms of the graph, a canonical label will be found among those terminal nodes of minimal indicator function value. HNauty Here we describe HNauty and explain how HNauty dif fers from Mc

n the liver transcriptome of both rainbow trout and Atlantic salm

n the liver transcriptome of both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. However, there are few data on the interaction between genotype and dietary fatty acid composition. In this respect, microarrays have great potential for application as hypothesis generating tools. The objective of the present study was to investi gate nutrient genotype interactions in two groups of Atlantic salmon families, Lean and Fat, fed diets where FO was completely replaced by a VO blend. The knowl edge gained concerning how this substitution affects hepatic metabolism and, furthermore, how these effects may depend on the genetic background of the fish, not only informs our understanding of lipid metabolism more generally but is also highly relevant to the strategy of genetic selection for families better adapted to alterna tive and more sustainable feed formulations in the future.

A previous study has already focused on hepatic choles terol and lipoprotein metabolism, which was shown to present a significant diet �� genotype interaction, while here we will present more broadly the effects of the fac tors diet and genotype. Entinostat Results Microarray results Two way ANOVA of the cDNA microarray dataset returned a high number of features showing evidence of differential expression for each factor 713 for diet and 788 for genotype and hence a more detailed analysis was restricted to the top 100 most significant hits for each factor, which were then categorised according to function. The functional category most affected by diet was that of metabolism, while immune response and intracellular trafficking were also affected.

Within lipid metabolism, the affected genes are involved in PUFA, fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis, gly cerophospholipid metabolism and acylglycerol homeostasis. Some genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, implicated in glycolysis, glutamine fructose 6 phosphate and glycerol 3 phosphate metabolism, such as alpha enolase, gluta mine fructose 6 phosphate transaminase 1 and glycerol kinase, respectively, were also identified as being significantly affected by diet. Genotype had a lower impact on metabolism related genes and affected mostly genes involved in signalling. Regarding lipid metabolism, pri mary roles of affected genes are in glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid transport and lipoprotein metabolism.

In addi tion, both factors had an effect on a relatively high number of transcription related genes. Detailed lists of the top 100 most significant genes for diet and geno type, organised by biological function and including the normalised expression ratio between treatments, are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, which enables the identification of GO terms significantly enriched in the input entity list when compared to the whole array dataset, was per formed for both factors, providing evidence for which biological processes may be particularly altered in the experimental conditions being compared. For die

Such colors are mostly related to multilayer interference, althou

Such colors are mostly related to multilayer interference, although the structural color of pigeon neck feathers have been discovered to be caused only by the interference from one thin film [10]. Figure 2(A) shows the neck feathers of the domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica, with an iridescent green and purple color. The cross-sectional micrograph of the neck feather taken by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows green and purple barbules, both consist of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. There is an obvious difference in thickness between green and purple barbules. The interference in the top keratin cortex layer and total thickness of the layers decides the apparent color of the barbule.

A more well-known example of naturally occurring multilayer interference is the brilliant blue color of Morpho butterflies’ wings [8]. Electron microscope observation under high magnification clearly illustrates that a lamellar structure consisting of alternating layers of cuticle and air is present in each ridge (Figure 2(B)). The ridge-lamellar structure formed by discrete multilayers work as an element of quasi-multilayer interference, meaning the narrow width of height-varying ridges causes light diffraction without interference among neighboring ridges. The bright blue color is attributed to a significant difference in the refractive indices between cuticle (n = 1.56) and air (n = 1), with the layer thickness nearly fulfilling the conditions of ideal multilayer interference.Compared to 1D photonic structures, 2D photonic structures in Nature provide richer color.

Zi et al. reported the mechanism of color production in peacock feathers [14], finding that the differently colored barbules contain a 2D PC structure composed of melanin rods connected by keratin (Figure 2(C)). The nearly square lattice structures in the colored barbules differ in characteristics such as lattice constant Cilengitide (rod spacing) and number of periods (melanin rod layers) along the direction normal to the cortex surface. The tunable lattice parameters are the cause of the diverse coloration seen in the barbules. In addition, these 2D gratings exhibit self-cleaning capabilities due to the high fraction of the air trapped in the trough area between melanin rod arrays. Another type of 2D photonic structure is periodic long fibers found in the iridescent setae from polychaete worms (Figure 2(D)) [9].

A 2D hexagonal lattice of voids within the cross-section of each seta creates a
We integrated the components of the IR detector to make it more accurate, convenient and reliable. We used detectors for wavelengths of 3.31 ��m and 3.91 ��m, an IR light source, a circuit board, and a metal net integrated into a gold-plated chamber. The porous gold-plated metal and the metal net allow gas to diffuse into the gas chamber and eliminate the influence of the external environment.

01 The decomposed IMFs are given in Figure 3a�Cd, respectively

01. The decomposed IMFs are given in Figure 3a�Cd, respectively. The impact component and the high-frequency sinusoidal component are successfully decomposed into IMFs c1 and c2. However, the low-frequency sinusoidal wave is split into two IMFs c3 and c4. That is to say, the mode mixing appears in lower frequency components. It is probably because the added noise is too large and destroys the extrema distribution of lower frequency components, leading to the mode mixing.Figure 2.The decomposed result with the added noise amplitude of 0.001.Figure 3.The decomposed result with the added noise amplitude of 0.01.Based on the simulation results, it is observed that in the process of EMD, high and low frequency components have different sensitivity to the intensity of the noise to be added in the investigated signal.

The original EEMD method, however, adopts the constant noise amplitude and sifting number for all frequency components. Therefore, the problem of mode mixing is not overcome well and the performance of EEMD needs to be improved further.3.?The Proposed Adaptive Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition3.1. The Proposed MethodIn this section, an adaptive EEMD is proposed to further improve the original EEMD in solving the problem of mode mixing. In this method, according to different sensitivity of high and low frequency components to noise, larger noise and more s
Every year, millions of young children die of common diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhea [1], in most cases due to the onset and progression of an inflammatory state of the body called sepsis.

Sepsis affects the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the hemoglobin molecules in the blood, which is essential for the function of cells in the body. A short interruption in the supply of oxygen will impair cellular function, and a sustained interruption will rapidly cause cellular injury and eventually death. Detection of reduced oxygen levels in the blood is therefore a key indicator of patients requiring immediate intervention.Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive optical sensing technology that is able to measure arterial oxygen saturation. This technology has contributed significantly to reducing the risk of death associated with anesthesia Dacomitinib and surgery. The pulse oximeter has become a standard monitoring device in modern hospitals [2,3], mandatory in North America, much of Europe and many other regions around the world. However, there are still locations globally where pulse oximeters are not routinely used during anesthesia, as they are not available, and an estimated 77,000 operating rooms worldwide are without oximeters [4]. The World Health Organization (WHO) is addressing this shortfall through the Global Oximetry (GO) initiative [5,6].

Section 8 organizes existing schemes on the basis of their main g

Section 8 organizes existing schemes on the basis of their main goal(s) and provides a comparative study in terms of the various features. Finally, Section 9 concludes our discussion with identification of issues that need to be addressed in pursuit of data delivery to a mobile sink.2.?Network Architecture of Mobile Sink Based Wireless Sensor NetworkThe mWSN network architecture differs from that of a static WSN in the sense that in the former case, the sink keeps on moving around/inside the sensor field for efficient data collection. A reference mWSN network architecture is shown in Figure 2. The main components of a mWSN are given as follows:Regular Nodes��These are the ordinary sensor nodes that are deployed in the sensor field for sensing some phenomenon of interest.

Upon sensing the events, these nodes disseminate their data in a cooperative manner towards a mobile sink. Depending on their placement in the sensor field, nodes might work as relays thereby forwarding others data towards a mobile sink.Mobile Sink(s)��Depending on the application scenario, there might be single/multiple mobile sink(s) that move inside/around the sensor field for data collection. Such devices are considered unconstrained devices in terms of their resources. Mobile sink can be a sensor node attached to a human, car, animal or a robot.(Optional) Sink Assistants��In some applications, special nodes are deployed at strategic positions that provide assistance to the sink in data collection. These devices are also considered as energy rich.

In static deployment, such nodes become intermediate/local data collectors from the sensor nodes and later on deliver collected data to a mobile sink upon its arrival. In the mobility case, they are meant to ensure coverage of almost the entire sensor field for real-time communication services in certain applications.Figure 2.Network architecture of a mobile wireless sensor network.3.?Sink Mobility AdvantagesIn almost all WSN applications, the sink is considered as an unconstrained entity in terms of resources (energy reserve, processing power, communication capability, etc.). Likewise, in several applications of sensor networks, sink mobility can be realized by attaching a sink device to a mobile entity such as human, animal, robot, or vehicle which can move around/inside the sensor field for data collection. Thus considerable energy savings can be obtained by deploying a mobile sink in sensor field. Kinalis et Drug_discovery al. identified several potential advantages of sink mobility [12] in the sensor field that are outlined as follows:Sensor Lifetime Enhancement��By exploiting sink mobility, not only is the energy-hole problem alleviated, but it also improves the lifetime of nodes thereby reducing the multi-hop communication.

While the general approach of the presented paper is not complete

While the general approach of the presented paper is not completely new, the combination of EBL patterning with a specific deposition technique, that is electroless growth, is an original scheme. To cite a few examples, in [35], Gopinath and colleagues demonstrated the use of a combined top down and bottom up fabrication process to obtain multi-scale systems with improved Raman sensing capabilities, where the top-down part of the process is represented by EBL patterning, like in our work. Nevertheless, in the cited paper, the authors utilized electron-beam evaporation for depositing the final nanoparticles. Differently from the described method, electroless growth allows realization of full three-dimensional structures, that is nanospheres, in opposition to disc-like, 2 + 1 dimensional structures, like those that may be obtained using a planar evaporation process.

In [36], Pinna and colleagues obtained nanocomposite thin films formed by mesoporous titania layers loaded with ceria nanoparticles exposing the titania matrix with hard X-rays, where the exposition to hard X-rays triggers the formation of crystalline cerium oxides within the pores inducing the in situ growth of nanoparticles. Differently from this, our method does not require hard-X ray lithography and related instrumentation, including costly synchrotron radiation. Instead, the growth is site selective, and takes place in a solution of silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid, that are compounds easily found in a chemical lab.

Moreover, in our paper, rather than focusing on specific applications of the technique, we attempt to provide an explanation of the fundamental mechanisms of electroless particle formation at the nanoscale, using a joint experimental, numerical and theoretical approach. Also, none of cited the papers have the resolution and the geometrical/structural control found in our case.Electroless deposition is a technique in which metal ions in solution can be reduced and deposited as metals using appropriate reducing agents, in presence of a catalyst that can accelerate the electroless reaction allowing for the oxidation of the reducing agent. In order to boost the transfer of electrons, both the metal ions and the reducing agent should be adsorbed Drug_discovery onto the catalytic surface. While electroless deposition is a general process, we used here silicon as a plating substrate because it delivers the interesting ability to behave like a catalyst and reducing agent, simultaneously. This means that metal ions can be reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface without the need of an external reducing agent.

Satellite remote sensing has the potential to provide synoptic co

Satellite remote sensing has the potential to provide synoptic coverage of the area. Even for moderate resolution imagery, such as Landsat, several images are required to cover this area. Such imagery, however, historically has been deemed inappropriate for conducting species-level mapping [3]. Previous efforts to map WBP in the northern Rockies met with low accuracies [4, 5]. We believed that these low accuracies might be a result of several factors, including (1) lack of adequate training data to represent the wide variability of this species across the region, (2) mapping WBP concurrently with other land cover types, resulting in approaches that might have compromised accuracy of the WBP class to increase overall accuracy and relative accuracy across all classes, and (3) use of traditional classification algorithms that are less accurate than some more recent algorithms.

The Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team initiated an effort to map the distribution of WBP throughout the GYE in the fall of 2003. We sought to determine whether an approach focusing on a single species and using recent advances in classification methods could result in increased accuracies over those previously reported.2.?MethodsOur study area covered the GYE, including portions of six national forests and all of two national parks (Figure 1). Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery was used as the primary mapping data source.

Seven ETM+ scenes for September 1999 covering the core of the GYE (Figure 2) were provided with geometric and radiometric corrections by the EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Figure 1.Location of study area, showing administrative units within the national forest and national park systems.Figure Entinostat 2.Study area classification divisions GSK-3 based on east, west and middle paths of Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery, including national forest and national park boundaries.We intended for reference data to use information collected by U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service in conjunction with their standard timber-stand exams, vegetation plots, soil surveys, and other field activities, because the extent of the study area made extensive ground collection impractical.

The agencies responded well to our requests for data, and we were able to compile a large pool of vegetation data that collectively constituted a fairly sufficient representation of the spatial complexities of the ecosystem. The types and amount of information recorded for these data varied greatly due to multiple data sources and differing purposes for which the data were collected.

The investigation focused on the generation of multi-resolution D

The investigation focused on the generation of multi-resolution DSMs and was addressed to typical remote sensing users (also for non specialists in photogrammetry). Since the study would like to be able to provide some operative hints about the potentialities and limits in the generation of DSMs from Cartosat-1 data for landscapes similar to the C-SAP French test sites, all the data processing was done using standard commercial off-the-shelf software (RSI ENVI?) rather than homemade or scientific software.Results were compared with reference data expressly acquired for C-SAP [15,17] and also with existing standards and products actually used in France (i.e., the French Institut G��ographique National’s and Spot Image’s Reference 3D?, the French DB Alti? and the French DB ORTHO?).

Finally, the investigation also provided a comparison between the Cartosat-1 DSMs and the global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DSMs, widely used in the remote sensing community as topographic layer [18].2.?Results and DiscussionGenerally speaking, we can affirm that the Cartosat-1 DSM’s accuracy decreases as the number of GCPs used decreases, with increasing ground sampling distance and with increasing terrain slope. Moreover, the use of high quality GCPs is fundamental to obtain good DSMs, filtering may help to enhance the elevation accuracy and the generation method used is fundamental for determining the final quality of products. Cilengitide Following, the effect of each of them will be considered.2.1.

Influence of GCPsThe influence of GCPs in the generation of absolute DSMs was studied by analyzing dozens of 25 m resolution DSMs generated for both Mausanne les Alpilles and Salon de Provence using different GCPs number and configuration. Their accuracy was validated both locally using Independent Check Points (ICPs) and on the whole study areas using the reference DSMs/DTMs supplied by the Principal Investigators. With respect to ICPs, for Mausanne les Alpilles the best results were achieved using five GCPs (four in the corners and one in the centre), obtaining a mean value of residuals (��) of -0.0 m, a standard deviation (��) of 1.7 m and a RMSE of 1.7 m. For Salon de Provence, the best results were achieved using nine GCPs regularly distributed obtained a mean value of residuals of 0.5 m, a standard deviation of 1.4 m and a RMSE of 1.2 m. We should note, however, that similar results were achieved using fewer GCPs: using four GCPs we obtained a RMSE of 1.3 m, while using six GCPs we found a RMSE of 1.2 m. Consequently, for the test field studies we can affirm that the sensor orientation can be carried on with at least least GCPs. This outcome has been also confirmed by other studies handling the same dataset or other datasets [15-17,43,48-50].

Of course continuous ablation at the same location will lead to d

Of course continuous ablation at the same location will lead to deep craters and these craters will affect LIBS intensity. Some studies have shown that LIBS in a confined location, for example ablation craters, has a significant effect on the signal intensity [42�C44]. Dreyer et al. noted reduced LIBS intensity after 10 to 20 shots at the same location [39].Yalcin and co-workers [45] investigated the effect of reduced pressures on LIBS using a Ti:sapphire laser with a 130 fs pulse duration. Figure 4 compares LIBS spectra of Al(I) at 396.15 nm taken at atmospheric pressure (760 Torr) and 4 Torr with spectrometer gate
Diabetes mellitus is one of the principal causes of death and disability in the World, and is highly responsible for heart disease, kidney failure, and blindness.

About 200 million people in the world are afflicted with diabetes mellitus. This figure is expected to rise up to more than three hundred million by 2030 [1]. Frequent testing of physiological blood glucose levels to avoid diabetic emergencies, is crucial for the confirmation of effective treatment [2�C5]. Therefore, the development of high sensitive, low-cost, reliable glucose sensors having an excellent selectivity has been the subject of concern for decades, not only in medical science but also in the food industries [6,7]. Glucose oxidase (GOx)-based glucose biosensors have prevalently had a hold on the glucose sensor research and development over the last four decades and the market place as well.

This is due to the high demand of sensitive and reliable blood glucose monitoring in biological and clinical aspects [8�C11].

There are still some disadvantages of enzyme-based glucose determination. Examples include complicated enzyme immobilization, critical operating conditions such as optimum temperature and pH, chemical instability, and high cost [12,13].The historical commencement of biosensors was in 1960s with the pioneering work of Clark and Lyons [14], and the first enzyme-based glucose Batimastat sensor commenced by Updike and Hicks in 1967 [15].

Since then, an extensive research have been done on the amperometric, potentiometric, and impedimetric or conductometric glucose biosensors based on the GOx [16�C23], that Brefeldin_A catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to produce gluconic acid as shown in equation (1):D?glucose+O2+H2O��GOxD?gluconic?acid+H2O2(1)The activity of enzymes is obviously affected by the temperature, pH, humidity, and toxic chemicals [24]. To solve these problems, many enzyme-free sensors have been investigated to improve the electrocatalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxidation of glucose.