All mice were trained by treadmill running 5 times per week for 2 weeks.
SP was dissolved in distilled water and 800-mg/kg body weight daily doses and administered orally intraperitoneally before the running exercise to the SP group for 2 weeks [13–15]. The CON group was treated with vehicle only (distilled water 5 mL/kg body weight). was measured before and after the 2 weeks training period. We also evaluated energy Gemcitabine price metabolism during exercise for 1 h after the 2 weeks training period. Mice were fasted 3 h before the 1 h exercise. We obtained blood, liver glycogen, and gastrocnemius-white and red muscle samples at three time points: rest, immediately after exercise and 1 h post-exercise. The INCB28060 mice were fed ad libitum with a find more standard diet (5 L79; Orient Bio, Inc.) containing the following nutrients (g/kg diet): crude protein, 180; crude fat, 52; crude fiber, 52; minerals, 57; and carbohydrates, 368. The calorically based protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio (%) was 21:14:65, and the gross and metabolizable caloric contents of the diet were 4.04 and 3.21 Kcal/g, respectively. The body weights and food intake were monitored daily throughout
the experiment. All mice were housed in standard plastic cages under controlled humidity (50%) and temperature (23°C ± 1°C) conditions and with alternating 12-h light/dark cycles. All experimental procedures were performed at the Animal Experiment Research Center of Konkuk University. This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines of the Konkuk University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Silk peptides SP were obtained from Worldway Co. Ltd. (Jeoneui, Korea). The SP primarily comprised amino acids in the following order of concentration: Ala (34.36%) > Gly (27.23%) > Iso (15.51%) > Ser
(9.58%) > minor amino acids. Composition 4��8C details are shown in Table 1. The SP composition according to molecular weight was as follows: an approximate range of 150–350 D and an average molecular weight of approximately 250 D. Table 1 Amino acid compositions (%) of SP Amino acid SP (silk peptide) Ala 34.36 Gly 27.23 Iso 15.51 Ser 9.58 Val 3.49 Thr 2.00 Asp 1.68 Glu 1.28 Ile 1.25 Leu 1.24 Phe 0.87 Pro 0.44 Tyr 0.41 His 0.21 Arg 0.17 Met 0.10 Lys 0.10 Cys 0.05 Trp 0.05 Sum 100.00 Training method Running mice were adapted to treadmill training (treadmill from Daejong Systems, Korea) at a fixed intensity (15 m/min, 8° slope) for 3 days. All mice were then tested for a certain period at a frequency of 5 times per week for a total of 2 weeks. The following protocols were used: 20 m/min, 8° slope, 50 min/day for the first week and 25 m/min, 8° slope, 50 min/day (about 75% of maximum ) for the second week .