How, for instance, can actual policy goals, serving specific func

How, for instance, can actual policy goals, serving specific functions within the CFP, be turned into outcome targets of an RBM system? What does it take for a group of fishermen to make the leap from a micro-managed environment of the CFP

to become competent co-managers within an RBM system? How can the division of responsibilities between authority and operator, essential to the RBM model, be adapted to work within the CFP, where the responsibility for resource conservation is vested in EU institutions and cannot be formally delegated? Two cases are described and compared in order to address these issues. The cases are Veliparib ic50 chosen to illustrate RBM in fisheries that differ on a range of important dimensions. The first case, Catch Quota Management, has emerged as a pilot project within a CFP context. This is a case of RBM on a vessel basis: the vessel is granted an additional catch allowance, provided that it also accepts an additional “burden of evidence”. Here, limited resource management responsibility is delegated to resource users, and no collaborative organizational work and planning

by resource users is involved. The second case, New Zealand Rock Lobster management, involves substantial delegation of management and research responsibility to resource user organizations regarding a resource selleck kinase inhibitor of high commercial importance. Here, industry organizations have acquired a significant role of in resource management on national and regional levels in the course of decades. Taken together, the two cases illustrate that the concept of RBM represent a flexible and versatile approach, spanning from limited to substantial involvement of

Dichloromethane dehalogenase resource users in management and research processes. In recent years, several RBM inspired approaches have been initiated within a CFP context. Two notable examples include the instrument of ‘catch quota management’ as opposed to management focused on landing quotas, and the opportunities for member states to obtain additional effort allocations within the EU’s “long term management for cod” provided that they documented “cod avoidance” in specific fisheries [18]. The former example will be used to illustrate RBM at a vessel level. Catch quota management (CQM) involves management and documentation of catches (which include discards) as opposed to management and control of landings. Proposed by the Danish government, a CQM system was first tested in Europe in the years 2008 and 2009 in a pilot project, which involved remote electronic monitoring of the catches of six Danish vessels fishing for cod [30]. The project has been continued and extended since then, and other CQM projects have been carried out in the Scotland [40], England [41] and Germany. The catches of the vessels participating in CQM were continuously filmed by Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV), and the images were later used to estimate discard volumes and catch compositions.

However, it should be noted that the plume thickness is very sens

However, it should be noted that the plume thickness is very sensitive to the chosen tracer threshold value, and our plume thickness could fall into the same range as Fer and Ådlandsvik (2008) if we used a different threshold. We therefore do not overemphasise the detailed comparison of the modelled plume height with actual observations of the Storfjorden plume as many aspects of our model setup are idealised and not designed

to replicate observed conditions. The absolute plume thickness hFhF is normalised by the Ekman depth HeHe defined here as He=2ν/fcosθ for a given slope angle θ   and the vertical viscosity ν   (calculated here by the GLS turbulence closure Selleck GSK J4 scheme) which is averaged over the core of the plume. The vertical diffusivity κκ is also shown to assess the vertical Prandtl number Prv=ν/κPrv=ν/κ which is ≈O(1)≈O(1). The Entrainment ratio is calculated as E=we/uFE=we/uF, where wewe is the entrainment velocity dhF/dtdhF/dt (Turner, 1986) and uF=dL/dtuF=dL/dt is the downslope speed

(L is the distance of the plume edge from the inflow) of the flow. E is calculated over the time taken by the flow until it has reached 1400 m HCS assay depth (or until the end of the experiment if this depth is not reached). The results for both subsets of experiments are summarised in Table 1. Values for vertical viscosity ν   and Ekman depth HeHe are typical for oceanic scales (e.g. Cushman-Roisin and Beckers, 2011) and they are similar in both regimes. However, the plume height hFhF differs considerably between both sets of experiments. A piercing plume is on average 44 m thick towards the bottom end Palmatine of the flow compared to 166 m in experiments where the plume is arrested. An explanation is found in the entrainment ratio E which changes with the depth level of the plume head and thus varies through time. The value of E is larger while the plume head is at the depth level of a density interface in the ambient

waters (which is a considerable portion of the total experiment time in arrested runs). Its value is smaller during the plume’s descent through a homogenous layer of ambient water (as it does for the majority of the experiment time in piercing runs). Based on buoyancy considerations alone one could expect that the incoming plume with a density greater than the density of the bottom layer (in our case for S > 34.85) should always penetrate into that layer. However, our results show that this is not the case because of mixing processes that result in density changes of the plume as it progresses downslope over time. In this section, we examine the downslope propagation of the plume. Fig. 6 shows the depth of the plume edge over time calculated from the deepest appearance of a concentration PTRC⩾0.05PTRC⩾0.05 in the bottom model level.

As células tumorais expressam fator viii, Vimentina, CD 31 e/ou C

As células tumorais expressam fator viii, Vimentina, CD 31 e/ou CD 34 e são negativas para o anticorpo HMB45 e para um painel de citoqueratinas18. A estratégia

terapêutica para abordagem destes tumores não está uniformizada devido à sua raridade, heterogeneidade e evolução clínica Navitoclax in vivo variável. Os principais fatores decisivos da abordagem terapêutica são: a forma do envolvimento hepático e a existência de lesões extra-hepáticas. A existência de localizações secundárias dificulta a decisão, tornando-a controversa. A ressecção cirúrgica constitui a terapêutica de primeira linha. Deve ser aplicada em doentes com doença hepática localizada, o que constitui um cenário clínico pouco frequente14. Devido ao facto de a maioria das lesões serem

multicêntricas, aquando do diagnóstico, frequentemente não é possível a sua aplicação. Estima-se que mais de 4/5 dos doentes possuam doença multifocal e/ou bilobar e que mais de 1/3 apresentem envolvimento extra-hepático aquando o diagnóstico. Estão descritas taxas de sobrevida de 100, 85 e 75% após o primeiro, terceiro e quinto anos da ressecção nos doentes elegíveis6. A ressecção paliativa não é recomendada pois os tumores tendem a comportar-se de forma mais agressiva após a sua execução. Uma possível explicação é a reatividade das células tumorais restantes aos fatores de crescimento hepatotropos que promovem a regeneração CAL-101 mouse hepática19. Este fenómeno pode surgir em ressecções presumivelmente curativas com doença extensa pelo que, por essa razão, deverão ser considerados para transplante em detrimento

da ressecção cirúrgica. A transplantação é a modalidade terapêutica mais comum. Aliás, fundamentado na incapacidade de prever a agressividade do HEH Glycogen branching enzyme e na limitada aplicabilidade da ressecção hepática, a implementação de transplantação hepática tornou-se mais abrangente. A existência de doença extra-hepática não constitui contraindicação, sendo, no entanto, controversa. Se, num estudo englobando 25 doentes com HEH, Cardinal et al.14 identificaram a presença de doença extra-hepática como fator preditivo negativo na sobrevida média dos doentes submetidos a transplantação, outros estudos não o comprovam. Lerut et al.20 descreveram, tendo por base o registo europeu de transplantação hepática, a sua realização em 59 doentes com HEH com resultados excelentes: sobrevida ao 1, 3 e 10 anos de 93, 83 e 72%, respetivamente. Avaliaram vários fatores prognósticos aquando do transplante, concluindo que a existência de doença extra-hepática, bem como o envolvimento linfático não constituem contraindicações para o tratamento. No entanto, a invasão microvascular e/ou macrovascular, está associada à redução significativa da sobrevida. Também Rodriguez et al.21 reportaram bons resultados, com sobrevidas de 80, 68 e 64% aos 1, 3 e 5 anos, respetivamente, em 110 doentes registados no United Networkfor Organ Sharing nos Estados Unidos da América.

This goes to show that the last immobilization method has a high

This goes to show that the last immobilization method has a high intrinsic biocompatibility, which would allow the development of biosensing modules to perform acute toxicity test for environmental monitoring. Employing a two-step immobilization procedure, we accomplished the co-immobilization of a crustacean (D. magna) and microalgae (P. subcapitata) CX-4945 mouse in a nanoporous silica matrix. The

procedure allows the organisms to remain in liquid culture during the synthesis of both the Ca-alginate and the silica matrix that would immobilize and isolate the small liquid culture from the surroundings. This could provide a general approach for the design of modular biosensing devices, allowing ecotoxicity studies to be carried out in portable devices for in situ pollution level monitoring. Moreover, the high biocompatibility obtained Epigenetics inhibitor suggests that this technique could be advantageously applied to many other species, allowing for different microcosms formulations in contiguous modules of a multiple sensor. The silica matrix is mechanically stable and non-degradable by microorganisms. Additionally, its porosity can be tuned from the synthesis parameters to allow free diffusion of high molecular weight molecules but avoid microorganism contamination, assuring not only the conservation of biosensing modules but avoiding at the same time a false positive

resulting from the interaction with other species present in the natural sample of water. On the other hand, its controlled porosity and the possibility of silica surface derivatization could allow for

selective transport of particular pollutants, PAK5 conferring different selectivity to each module in the arrangement. Although promising, the results shown here must be complemented with further research in order to optimize the modular biosensor design. For instance, the development of automatic systems based on image processing for the analysis of both daphnids mobility and algal population growth. Work in both directions is currently in advance in our laboratories. This work was performed in the frame of the ECOS-Sud A12B02 program and has been supported by the University of Lyon (ENTPE), CONICET GI-PIP 11220110101020, ANPCyT PICT-2013-2045, and UBACyT 20020130100048BA from Argentina. MP, MJ and SAB are Research Scientist of CONICET (Argentina). “
“Photosynthetic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have attracted a growing interest in biofuel production. These organisms are efficient at converting solar energy and recycling CO2, and thus, biofuel production does not compete with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and arable land. Estimates suggest that nearly 50% of the global net primary fixation of carbon by photosynthesis occurs in ocean waters dominated by phytoplankton.

In den USA lieferte der Third

In den USA lieferte der Third Dasatinib National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) Daten zur Zinkaufnahme (angegeben als Median) bei weißen, dunkelhäutigen und hispanischen US-Amerikanern verschiedenen Alters und Geschlechts ( Tabelle 1) [20]. Ältere Menschen (> 69 Jahre) haben offenbar ein erhöhtes Risiko für Zinkmangel. Dem US Department of Agriculture 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals zufolge betrug die mittlere tägliche Zinkaufnahme

bei Männern und Frauen im Alter von > 20 Jahren 13,5 bzw. 9,0 mg [21], bei Männern und Frauen im Alter von ≥ 60 Jahren 12,0 bzw. 8,9 mg [22] und bei Kindern im Alter von < 1 Jahr, 1 – 3 Jahren und 4 – 5 Jahren 6,6, 7,6 bzw. 9,1 mg [23]. Im Rahmen des 2000–2001 United Kingdom National Diet and Nutrition Survey wurden bei Erwachsenen im Alter von 19 – 64 Jahren für die Zinkaufnahme Werte von 10,7 ± 5,7 mg (Männer) und 7,9 ± 3,5 mg (Frauen) ermittelt [24]. Bei britischen Kindern im Alter von 15 – 18 Jahren wurden ähnliche Werte wie bei den Erwachsenen

festgestellt [25], bei Kindern im Alter von 11 – 14 Jahren betrugen sie 7,7 mg (Jungen) bzw. 6,7 mg (Mädchen). Die Einnahme von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln kann die Zinkaufnahme deutlich erhöhen. In den Ipilimumab cost USA ist die Einnahme von Nährstoffsupplementen weit verbreitet. Der Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey zeigt, dass etwa 40% der Bevölkerung Nahrungsergänzungsmittel konsumieren. Bei den Erwachsenen im Alter von ≥60 Jahren nahmen 35 – 41% der Männer und 36 – 45% der Frauen nach aktuellen Standards zu wenig Zink mit

der Nahrung auf, wobei Supplemente die Zufuhr verbesserten [26]. Fast 32% der Kinder im Alter von 24 Monaten erhielten in den USA Supplemente, wobei die Mehrzahl jedoch über die Ernährung very ausreichend mit den meisten Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen, einschließlich Zink, versorgt war [27]. Dagegen nahmen in Deutschland nur 6% der Kinder zwischen 2 und 18 Jahren ergänzend Mineralstoffe ein [28]. Die Auswirkungen einer Zinksupplementierung bei adäquater Zinkaufnahme mit der Nahrung sind noch nicht ausreichend verstanden und werden weiter unten diskutiert. In vielen Ländern ist die durchschnittliche Zinkaufnahme zwar ausreichend, dennoch gibt es in allen Bevölkerungen Untergruppen mit einem Risiko für Zinkmangel. Einige der Faktoren, die dazu beitragen, sind Armut, eingeschränkte Versorgung mit Nahrungsmitteln und Ernährungsgewohnheiten. Verbreiteter Zinkmangel hat ernste Auswirkungen auf Gesundheit und Leistungsfähigkeit. Daher ist die Verhütung des Zinkmangels eine bedeutende Herausforderung. Die Zinkversorgung ist abhängig von der Menge und der Bioverfügbarkeit des Zinks in der Nahrung. Der Zinkgehalt einiger in den USA gängiger Lebensmittel variiert um wenigstens eine Größenordnung [28]. Weltweit sind für die meisten Menschen Hülsenfrüchte und Getreide die wichtigsten Zinkquellen [30].


options Download full-size image Download


options Download full-size image Download as PowerPoint slide We were sitting my lab in early August last summer reminiscing. “Stanley”, I said, “How long did it take you to buy a pair of western boots?” (Referring to his first job at Rio Vista International after leaving ORNL – and me – in 1981. Rio Vista was a cattle ranch near San Antonio, Texas eager to conduct cutting edge research on cow embryo cryopreservation and transfer. They hired Stanley and Bill Rall for this purpose.) Stanley and I had just attended the 50th Anniversary meeting of the Society for Cryobiology in Bethesda in late July 2013, and he was visiting my lab to discuss our collaborative research under an NIH grant. He thought for a few seconds and said a bit sheepishly “Oh, about two days.” I replied “Did you ever see the movie with selleck chemicals Danny Kaye titled the ‘The Sotrastaurin order Secret Life of Walter Mitty’?” [This was based on a New Yorker short story of the same name by James Thurber]. “Well”, I continued, “You have certain Walter Mitty characteristics!” For a few seconds, Stanley looked like a deer caught in automobile head lights, and then he broke out into a broad grin. “You know,

Peter, I did see it, and you’re right!” I tell this little story not just because it’s amusing but because it says something important about how the man lived life and did science. Of course, it underlay his being the pre-eminent raconteur of cryobiology. At the memorial service organized by his daughter Beth and son

Jonathan in Houston April 5, all four speakers noted with great affection that conversations with Stanley would often be punctuated with “That reminds me of …” where the ellipsis represents any of perhaps two dozen tales in buy Nutlin-3 his repertoire. Most great American story tellers are native to the American South, but Stanley was more representative of the Herman Melville branch from the North–East (Rhode Island in Stanley’s case). I think his story-telling abilities lay at the heart of his enthusiasm for science in general and for the science and applications of cryobiology in particular. Unquestionably, this enthusiasm partly explains why he probably knew and worked with more cryobiologists world-wide than any one. It partly explains why he was so often invited to lecture globally and to organize and conduct workshops on the techniques for the freezing and vitrification of mammalian embryos and sperm. But there were aspects of his career that had little or nothing to do with Walter Mitty-ish characteristics. Far and away number one in my view is that he was a first-rate scientist! And almost equal to that is that the science he did has had a huge impact on the science and applications of cryobiology, and on the impact of that science on society. First, he had extremely high standards for the experiments he designed, conducted, and published.

In the following, we will show that crowding strength can weaken

In the following, we will show that crowding strength can weaken if more flankers are presented, crowding occurs with flankers well beyond Bouma’s window, complex features determine low level feature processing, processing

Sirolimus is not stereotypically but necessitates a grouping stage, and, finally, information is not lost at early stages. We can uncork the bottleneck of vision simply by adding elements. First, according to pooling models, crowding strength increases if the number of flankers increases because more irrelevant information is pooled. For this reason, almost all experiments on crowding have used only single flankers neighboring the target 37• and 38•. However, already in 1979, Banks and colleagues showed that crowding is weaker when a target letter is flanked by an array of flanking letters compared to a single letter (Figure 2A, [39]). These results were forgotten for more than 25 years. Recently, we have shown when bigger is better ( Figure 2B). We presented a vernier stimulus, which consists of two vertical lines slightly offset either to the left or right. Observers indicated the offset direction. When one shorter line to the left and one to the selleck right flanked the vernier, performance strongly deteriorated. Performance improved when further lines were added ( Figure 2B, red line). The same pattern of results was found for longer lines

( Figure 2B, blue line) but not for lines with the same length as the vernier ( Figure 2B, green line). In this case, performance stays roughly on the same level independent of the number of lines. Hence, bigger can be worse and bigger can be better 11••, 15, 16 and 41. The latter case clearly shows that vernier information is not irretrievably lost at the early stages. By adding further elements, we can ‘uncork’ the bottleneck of vision, that is, we can undo crowding. We proposed that grouping explains these results. When single shorter lines are presented they group with the vernier. However, arrays of shorter lines group with each other and do not group with the

vernier. For equal length lines, the vernier always groups with the flankers. Hence, crowding is weak when target and flankers do not group with each other. Strong crowding occurs only when target and flankers group. It may be argued that, for example, adding lines in Figure 2C, [40] simplifies the Fourier spectrum, that is, ‘the more the better’ argument does not apply. We could not find any evidence that such an approach can succeed [43]. Second, because crowding was thought to occur only by flankers presented within Bouma’s window, flankers were only presented close to the target. However, crowding extends well beyond Bouma’s window. Orientation discrimination of a letter T only slightly deteriorated when flanking Ts were presented outside Bouma’s window (Figure 3A, a–b). Crowding was also weak when a square within Bouma’s window surrounded the target (Figure 3A, a-c).

For protein purification, further additional steps of chromatogra

For protein purification, further additional steps of chromatography were necessary, using a Bio Basic C8 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, Thermo, USA) with optimized Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso gradients. The HPLC column eluates were monitored by their absorbance at 214 nm. SDS-PAGE

was carried out according to Laemmli (1970). Proteins (10 μg) from the mucus of P. cf. henlei were analyzed by SDS-PAGE 4–20% acrylamide gradient under reducing conditions. Prior to electrophoresis, the samples were mixed 1:1 (v/v) with sample buffer. The gels were stained with the Silver method. The fractions were analyzed by electrospray, with direct injection in an LC–MS Surveyor MSQ Plus (Thermo Electron, USA) under positive ionization mode. The needle and cone potential were set to 3.1 kV and 40 V, respectively. The aqueous sample solutions (10 μL) were directly injected at a 50 μL/min constant flow rate of acetonitrile H2O/0.1% formic acid (1:1). External calibration was performed with NaI (Sigma) over m/z 100–2000. Protein band was excised and in-gel trypsin digestion was performed according to Hellman et al. (1995). Nanospray MS/MS analysis was performed on tryptic digests of SDS-Page band of purified PcfHb using Q-Tof mass spectrometry (Q-TOF Ultima API Waters/Micromass, Manchester, United Kingdom). An aliquot (5 μL) of the

resulting peptide mixture were injected into Symmetry C18 trapping column (5 μm particles, 180 μm i.d. × 20 mm, Waters, USA) to desalt the peptide mixture.

5-Fluoracil cost The nano UPLC (Waters) conditions were 0.1% O-methylated flavonoid formic acid in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid as solvent B. The separations were performed at a flow rate of 0.6 μl/min using a 0–80% gradient of solvent B over 45 min. The LC system was coupled to a nano ESI source of the Q-ToF instrument using a BEH130C18 column (75 μm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm particles; Waters, MA, USA). Typical conditions were a capillary voltage of 3.1 kV, a cone voltage of 50 V, and source temperature of 70 °C. Data dependent acquisition (parent ions with 2, 3 and 4 charges) were automatically recognized by the charge state recognition software MassLynx 4.1 (Waters, USA). The peptide ions were detected by scanning from m/z 200 to m/z 2000 at a rate of 1 scan/s, and were subjected to collision-induced dissociation with argon in the 13–55 eV collision energy range. Product ions from MS/MS experiments were detected by scanning from m/z 50 to m/z 2000 at a rate of 1 scan/s. External calibration was performed using phosphoric acid (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). All MS/MS spectra were acquired using MassLynx 4.0 software (Waters), deisotoped and converted (by Waters ProteinLynx Global server 1.0 software) and searched using a licensed copy of the Mascot Server 2.2 program (Matrix Science, London, UK). In each instance, the search was carried out against the non-redundant protein database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information bank (NCBI www.ncbi.nlm.nih.

Os autores declaram que para esta investigação não se realizaram

Os autores declaram que para esta investigação não se realizaram experiências em seres humanos e/ou animais. Os autores declaram ter seguido os protocolos de seu centro de trabalho acerca da publicação dos dados de pacientes e que todos os pacientes incluídos no estudo receberam informações suficientes e deram o seu consentimento informado por escrito para participar nesse estudo. Os autores declaram que não aparecem dados de pacientes Ixazomib neste artigo. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“Barrett’s esophagus

(BE) is a premalignant condition that results from the replacement of the normal squamous lining of the esophagus by a columnar epithelium containing intestinal metaplasia (IM) on biopsy. A 53-year-old man was followed at our institution for long-segment BE (Prague classification C1 M4) since 2007. His past medical history was unremarkable. There were no visible nodules

or ulcerations within the BE at endoscopy in 2007 and 2008. Biopsies, performed according to the Seattle protocol, were negative for dysplasia. The patient returned in 2011 for surveillance endoscopy. At this exam a flat, slightly elevated, lesion (Paris classification 0-IIa) with 8 mm of diameter was noted near the gastroesophageal junction (Fig. 1A). Targeted biopsies were compatible with intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Biopsy specimens of the remainder BE were negative for dysplasia. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was performed 5-FU with the patient under deep sedation with propofol. We used the Duette Multiband Mucosectomy Kit™ (Cook Medical, Limerick, Ireland), which consists Ribociclib cell line of a modified variceal band ligator that allows passage of a hexagonal 1.5 cm × 2.5 cm snare made of braided wire alongside the releasing wires for the bands. The area to be resected was previously delineated with coagulation markings (Fig. 1B). The lesion was first suctioned into the ligating barrel, and the rubber band was deployed creating

a pseudopolyp. Resection was carried out, in two fragments, with the ESG-100 electrosurgical unit (Olympus Europe, Hamburg, Germany), using pure coagulation current (Fig. 1C–F). There were no early or delayed complications. Specimens were pinned on cork and fixed in formalin. Pathologic examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma limited to the lamina propria (Fig. 2A–C). Lateral margins were not evaluable given the piecemeal technique. At 6-weeks follow-up endoscopy there were no signs of residual lesion (Fig. 3A). Biopsies of the resection scar and Barrett’s segment showed no dysplasia. Due to high risk of metachronous lesions ablation of the remaining BE was scheduled.

0144) or mesalamine (median 24 days; P = 0071) ( Figure 2) Bude

0144) or mesalamine (median 24 days; P = .0071) ( Figure 2). Budesonide significantly reduced the mean number of watery stools per week from 29.7 to 2.4 (P < .0001), and increased the mean number of solid stools per week from 0.3 to 6.7 (P < .0001). Budesonide reduced the number of days with watery stools per week substantially within the first 2 weeks of treatment ( Figure 3). This effect was mirrored by a significant increase in the number of days with solid stools per week within the first 2 weeks of

budesonide treatment ( Supplementary Figure 2). On ITT analysis, the number of days with moderate-to-severe abdominal pain within the week before assessment was significantly PLX-4720 solubility dmso reduced from 1.8 to 0.8 (P = .047) in patients receiving budesonide, and the placebo

recipients displayed no significant change. The 3 treatment groups’ mean collagenous band thickness and degree of chronic lamina propria inflammation were similar at baseline. To examine the topographical distribution of histologic features of collagenous colitis, we analyzed a subgroup of patients who had had biopsies taken from all 5 colonic segments (n = 42). A collagenous band thickness >10 μm in all 5 colonic segments was present in 71.4% of patients, in 4 segments only in 11.9%, in 3 segments only in 9.5%, and in only 1 or 2 segments in 4.8% of patients. Virtually all patients had an at least mild lymphoplasmacellular Olopatadine inflammation in 4 or 5 colonic segments. Follow-up biopsies were available from 63 patients (budesonide 23, mesalamine 18, placebo 22), which allowed paired analysis of pre- and post-treatment histology. Follow-up biopsies were obtained from 46 patients from the right and left colon, although left-side only biopsies were available from 17 patients (sigmoid, descending colon). Histologic post-treatment remission was observed in 87% of the budesonide patients, in 50% of the placebo recipients

(P = .0106), and in 45% of the mesalamine patients. In the budesonide group, 78% of patients in clinical remission also presented histologic remission. We observed no correlation between clinical and histologic remission in patients taking mesalamine or placebo (data not shown). The rates of adverse events (AE) were similar among the 3 treatment groups (budesonide 47%, mesalamine 68%, placebo 54%; Table 2). None of the AE in the budesonide patients were considered drug related, and 5 AEs with mesalamine and 2 AEs with placebo were considered drug related. None of the budesonide patients experienced a serious AE, and 3 patients in the mesalamine group and 1 patient in the placebo group experienced a serious AE. None of the serious AEs were considered drug related.