Integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and the application of physiological approaches and simulation techniques to the analysis and interpretation of drug concentration and effect data offer new opportunities
that have particular relevance to pharmacological research in the field of pediatric anesthetics.”
“Highly accelerated lifetime tests (HALTs), thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements were performed on 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.3 PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystal to investigate time dependent dc resistance degradation under a dc bias. A low activation energy of 0.61 +/- 0.04 eV which controls the degradation KPT-8602 process in PMN-PT https://www.selleckchem.com/products/mk-5108-vx-689.html single crystal is determined from the characteristic degradation
time t(C) in HALT. Meanwhile, in a complementary TSDC investigation, a broad depolarization peak with an activation energy of 0.6 +/- 0.03 eV is observed in virgin PMN-PT single crystal having the characteristics of ionic space charge. Finally, impedance spectra of degraded PMN-PT single crystal exhibited three relaxations in contrast to two relaxations in virgin PMN-PT single crystal. In terms of equivalent circuit, an element combination R-Z(CPE) corresponding to ionic conduction is common to both virgin and degraded single crystals, and an activation energy about 0.64 eV, attributed to the ionic transport, is also obtained. This value is low compared to similar studies on alkaline-earth titanate perovskites, such as Fe-doped SrTiO3, however, here we suggest the activation energy about 0.6 eV from three independent measurements is attributed to the migration AZD1208 of oxygen vacancies in this particular lead-based single crystal, and besides this apparent ionic conduction, band electronic conduction is also discussed in both virgin and degraded single crystals in this paper.”
“BACKGROUND: The conversion of hydroxybenzyl alcohols,
nitro-benzyl alcohol and methoxybenzyl alcohols into the corresponding aldehydes is attempted in aqueous solution by Cu(II) (which reduces to Cu(0)), at room temperature, under acidic and deaerated conditions, using TiO2 solar simulated light photocatalysis. RESULTS: Under the experimental conditions adopted, the yields of the corresponding hydroxyaldehydes, when Cu(II) was completely reduced to Cu(0), were 21.6% for 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 11.5% for 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 20.2% for 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde. Higher conversions of 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol were recorded relative to unsubstituted benzyl alcohol. A selectivity of 5.2%, at 50% conversion of the substrate, was observed for the oxidation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol to 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. For high degrees of aromatic alcohols conversion, oxidation of the generated aldehydes to the corresponding benzoic acid derivatives is observed.