Integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and the appl

Integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and the application of physiological approaches and simulation techniques to the analysis and interpretation of drug concentration and effect data offer new opportunities

that have particular relevance to pharmacological research in the field of pediatric anesthetics.”
“Highly accelerated lifetime tests (HALTs), thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements were performed on 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.3 PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystal to investigate time dependent dc resistance degradation under a dc bias. A low activation energy of 0.61 +/- 0.04 eV which controls the degradation KPT-8602 process in PMN-PT single crystal is determined from the characteristic degradation

time t(C) in HALT. Meanwhile, in a complementary TSDC investigation, a broad depolarization peak with an activation energy of 0.6 +/- 0.03 eV is observed in virgin PMN-PT single crystal having the characteristics of ionic space charge. Finally, impedance spectra of degraded PMN-PT single crystal exhibited three relaxations in contrast to two relaxations in virgin PMN-PT single crystal. In terms of equivalent circuit, an element combination R-Z(CPE) corresponding to ionic conduction is common to both virgin and degraded single crystals, and an activation energy about 0.64 eV, attributed to the ionic transport, is also obtained. This value is low compared to similar studies on alkaline-earth titanate perovskites, such as Fe-doped SrTiO3, however, here we suggest the activation energy about 0.6 eV from three independent measurements is attributed to the migration AZD1208 of oxygen vacancies in this particular lead-based single crystal, and besides this apparent ionic conduction, band electronic conduction is also discussed in both virgin and degraded single crystals in this paper.”
“BACKGROUND: The conversion of hydroxybenzyl alcohols,

nitro-benzyl alcohol and methoxybenzyl alcohols into the corresponding aldehydes is attempted in aqueous solution by Cu(II) (which reduces to Cu(0)), at room temperature, under acidic and deaerated conditions, using TiO2 solar simulated light photocatalysis. RESULTS: Under the experimental conditions adopted, the yields of the corresponding hydroxyaldehydes, when Cu(II) was completely reduced to Cu(0), were 21.6% for 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 11.5% for 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 20.2% for 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde. Higher conversions of 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol were recorded relative to unsubstituted benzyl alcohol. A selectivity of 5.2%, at 50% conversion of the substrate, was observed for the oxidation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol to 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. For high degrees of aromatic alcohols conversion, oxidation of the generated aldehydes to the corresponding benzoic acid derivatives is observed.

RESULTS: Drug diffusion coefficients were: 1 38 10(-8)-m(2) s(-

RESULTS: Drug diffusion coefficients were: 1.38 . 10(-8)-m(2) s(-1) for Lidocaine hydrochloride and 5.96 . 10(-9)m(-2) s(-1) for Dihydroquercetin, while corresponding effective diffusion coefficients from hydrogels were: 7.82 . 10(-10)m(2) s(-1) and 7.98 . 10(-10)m(2) s(-1), respectively. Effective click here diffusion coefficients from liposome-containing hydrogels were:4.82

. 10(-10)m(2) s(-1) (Lidocaine hydrochloride) and 4.305 . 10(-10)m(2) s(-1) (Dihydroquercetin). Diffusion resistances for the two hydrogels were almost the same. Very similar values of diffusion resistances for all liposome dispersions were obtained.

CONCLUSION: Calculated diffusion coefficients and resistances demonstrate that liposomes, as drug carriers, significantly affect diffusion rates. The results obtained could be used whenever

diffusion-controlled drug release is required. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: The aim of this retrospective clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion on skeletal nasal cavity size in growing subjects by use of low dose computer tomography.

Methods: Eight Caucasian children (three male: five female) with a mean age of 9.7 years (SD +/- 1.41) were the final sample of this research that underwent palatal expansion as a first phase of orthodontic treatment. The maxillary expander was banded to the upper first molars and was activated according a rapid maxillary MI-503 nmr expansion protocol. Low-dose computer tomography examinations of maxilla and of the low portion of nasal cavity were performed before inserting the maxillary expander (T0) and at the end of retention (T1), 7 months later. A low-dose computer tomography protocol was applied during the exams. Image processing

Selleck PD-L1 inhibitor was achieved in 3 steps: reslicing; dental and skeletal measurements; skeletal nasal volume computing. A set of reproducible skeletal and dental landmarks were located in the coronal passing through the first upper right molar furcation. Using the landmarks, a set of transverse linear measurements were identified to estimate maximum nasal width and nasal floor width. To compute the nasal volume the lower portion of the nasal cavity was set as region of interest. Nasal volume was calculated using a set of coronal slices. In each coronal slice, the cortical bone of the nasal cavity was identified and selected with a segmentation technique. Dependent T-tests were used to evaluate changes due to expansion. For all tests, a significance level of P < 0.05 was used.

Results: Rapid maxillary expansion produced significant increases of linear transverse skeletal measurements, these increments were bigger in the lower portion of the nasal cavities: nasal floor width (+3.15 mm; SD +/- 0.99), maximum nasal width (+2.47 mm; SD +/- 0.99).

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3582151]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3582151]“
“The genus Drimys is distributed in Chile from semi-arid zones to sub-Antarctic forests; there are three species of this tree, D. andina, D. confertifolia and D. winteri, the latter with varieties

chilensis and winteri. Northern populations are found in small disjunct natural refuges, specifically mountain cloud forests and the bottom of ravines. The size and continuity of populations are greater in the south, where wetter conditions prevail. Morphological differences between populations have been observed, particularly between the northern populations of Fray Jorge and Talinay. This observation, led to the following questions: a) what is the level of morphological and genetic divergence among the populations of Drimys in Chile? and b) do the populations from Fray Jorge/Talinay, currently GNS-1480 purchase classified as D. winteri var. chilensis, differ genetically from the other populations

of this variety? To answer these questions, we collected leaf samples from 37 populations of all Chilean Drimys, performed leaf morphology analysis click here and estimated genetic divergence using RAPD markers. We found a high degree of leaf morphological and genetic divergence between the populations of Fray Jorge/Talinay and the other Chilean species of Drimys. The morphological and genetic divergence among varieties of D. winteri was greater than that among the species of Drimys, which may indicate problems with their taxonomic classification.”
“We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman with keratoconus who presented with a dislocated intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) (Intacs) in the anterior chamber

3 weeks after surgery To our knowledge, this is the first report of a late occurrence of postoperative anterior chamber dislocation of an ICRS and illustrates the need to consider the potential for such a complication”
“The present manuscript demonstrates the hole transport mechanism in an organic/inorganic hybrid system based on in-situ grown cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix. The increase of hole current in the hybrid system is correlated with the LDK378 mw formation of a host-guest (P3HT-CdTe) charge transfer complex duly supported by photoluminescence quenching. The hole transport mechanism in P3HT is governed by a space charge limited current with temperature, carrier density, and field dependent mobility. Incorporation of CdTe nanocrystals in a polymer matrix results in enhancement in the value of trap density H(b) from 2.8 x 10(18) to 5.0 x 10(18) cm(-3) and reduction in activation energies from 52 meV to 11 meV. At high trap density, trap potential wells start overlapping; this results in decrease of activation energies. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:565-70 (C) 2012 International Soc

J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:565-70 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Lowland heathland habitats are recognized to be of high conservation value throughout north-west Europe. Current management approaches focus on arresting natural succession to woodland, and include the use of vegetation cutting, burning and grazing by livestock.

However, the introduction of grazing has proved controversial, highlighting the need for evidence regarding its effectiveness. A systematic review of the scientific literature was therefore performed, which identified LY3039478 supplier 13 studies with appropriate comparators (such as untreated controls). Meta-analysis of these data indicated that grazing can result in an increase in the ratio of grassland to ericoid shrub cover, but insufficient experimental evidence was available to assess the effectiveness of any other intervention, indicating a lack of replicated studies with controls. Two Fedratinib mw forms of expert knowledge were also compiled, based on information in the scientific literature excluded from the meta-analysis, and questionnaire responses of heathland managers. While these two evidence sources were generally in close correspondence,

beliefs of heathland managers contradicted the scientific literature with respect to the impact of grazing on the ratio of grassland to ericoid shrubs. Incorporating a range of evidence sources in systematic reviews can therefore provide insights into contradictions in the evidence base. While a large majority of practitioners (94%) believe that grazing is an effective management option for lowland heath, evidence for a number of negative impacts on habitat attributes was recorded, highlighting the need for improved monitoring and experimental analysis of the effectiveness of management interventions.

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The information concerning aneurysmal progress in Behcet’s disease is still insufficient, while researches in the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aneurysmal formation are rapidly expanding. The goal of the present study is to investigate the role of metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in vascular complications which SB203580 cost is observed in 10% of Behcet’s disease patients. Three groups have been studied; patients with Behcet’s disease, patients with Behcet’s disease who have vascular problems (vasculo-Behcet’s), and patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The third group was used as a control. The activity and gene expression levels of MMP-9 in plasma have been determined. We showed that compared to AAA patients there was no difference in the MMP-9 activity in Behcet’s disease patients (vascular and non-vascular). We also evaluated the gene expression level and activity of MMP-9 for every patient. The increase in the gene expression level for MMP-9 could only be detected at two patients.

In the exercising Thoroughbred horse, extraordinarily high cardia

In the exercising Thoroughbred horse, extraordinarily high cardiac outputs exert significant pulmonary vascular stresses. The aim of this study was to determine, using contrast echocardiography, whether Thoroughbred horses performing strenuous exercise developed pulmonary transit of agitated contrast microbubbles (PTAC). At rest, agitated contrast was observed in the right ventricle, but not in the left ventricle. However, post-exercise microbubbles were observed in the left ventricle, confirming the occurrence of PTAC with exercise but not at rest. Further investigation is warranted to investigate whether this phenomenon may be associated with superior physiology and performance measures as has been implicated in other species. (c)

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report on an approach to tailor the magnetic exchange in a conventional granular CoCrPt:SiO2 recording medium by irradiation with Co+ ions. Irradiation at low fluences enhances this website the intergranular exchange resulting in a narrowing of the switching field distribution (SFD). The modification of magnetic exchange coupling was evidenced by measuring the angular dependence of the switching field and is supported by an increase in the magnetic domain size. Further, micromagnetic simulations

of a granular magnetic medium confirm the correlation between intergranular exchange and SFD. At high fluences, however, the irradiation damages lead to the degradation of the magnetic layer as HM781-36B Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetization decrease. Ion irradiation simulations suggest that this is caused by strong intermixing at the grain and layer interfaces.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3393960]“
“The alterations of the cerebral venous circulation are a rare but clinically important cause of headache. Although any process involving the cerebral veins or sinuses may cause headache, the most frequent and important are cerebral venous thrombosis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The headache of cerebral venous thrombosis does not have specific features and may be isolated; therefore, all patients with headache and risk factors for venous thrombosis should undergo the appropriate neuroradiologic examinations Cilengitide order to rule out the diagnosis. In fact, early anticoagulant treatment may dramatically change the clinical outcome. Also idiopathic intracranial hypertension, if untreated, may have serious clinical consequences such as permanent visual loss. The pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clearly established and several possibilities involving the cerebral circulation are discussed.”
“This study aimed to examine the prevalence of maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the past 10 years and the age- and parity-specific incidences for evidence of control of HBV infection in the female reproductive population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 58 736 consecutive pregnant women delivered from July 1998 to June 2008.

Because the silanized FC became the excellent nucleating agent fo

Because the silanized FC became the excellent nucleating agent for the PB crystallization, the PB/silanized FC was found to easily form the thicker lamella having a higher probability of containing a crystal defect to serve as a starting point of the transformation. The higher transformation rate depended on the thicker lamella formation rate and its amount. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 41-49, 2012″
“The current-voltage

(I-V) characteristics of industrially fabricated, crystalline silicon solar cells are often influenced by non-linear shunts that originate from localized, highly disturbed regions and cause ideality factors n > 2. We show that recombination within such locations needs model descriptions that go beyond the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) approximation, because the density of defects is so high that recombination does not occur via isolated, but AZD2014 coupled defect states. We use a variant of coupled defect level (CDL) recombination, the donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination, but via deep levels (as opposed to shallow levels). With this model, we quantitatively reproduce the I-V curves of solar cells that we subjected to various degrees of cleaving, laser scribing or diamond scratching to form shunt locations in a controlled manner. The suggested model explains buy CB-839 the transition

from ideality factors n < 2 to n > 2 when going from low to high defect densities. We also explain the non-saturating reverse I-V characteristics. We show that an additional source of currents with n > 2 is SRH recombination in an inversion layer that extends from the front p-n junction to the rear contact along the cell’s edge or along a micro-crack. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3607310]“
“Evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and operative findings in women of abdomino-pelvic tuberculosis undergoing laparotomy for suspected ovarian cancer.

A retrospective analysis of 26 women who underwent laparotomy for ovarian cancer and found to have abdomino-pelvic tuberculosis in three hospitals of Delhi.

The mean age was

34.65 years. Symptoms were menstrual dysfunction in 12 (46.2%), Evofosfamide supplier abdominal distension (8 women, 30.7%), abdominal pain (26 women, 100%), abdominal mass (5 women, 19.2%). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of Ca-125 levels were 594.22 +/- A 770.07. The mean +/- A SD of right and left tubovarian mass being 5.82 +/- A 3.94 cm and 5.81 +/- A 3.21 cm, respectively. Abdominal hysterectomy was done in 4 (15.4%) cases, right ovariotomy in 5 (19.2%), left Ovariotomy in 6 (23.1%), biopsies from right ovary 11 (42.3%), left ovary 7 (26.9%), omentum 10 (38.5%), peritoneum in 15 (57.7%). Tuberculous granuloma and AFB stain on histopathology were observed in all cases.

Peritoneal tuberculosis with abdomino-pelvic masses was difficult to differentiate from ovarian cancer.

6 nm)](5)/Ta (4 nm); both the bottom [Tb (1 6 nm)/CoFe (1 2 nm)](

6 nm)](5)/Ta (4 nm); both the bottom [Tb (1.6 nm)/CoFe (1.2 nm)](5) and top [CoFe (1.2 nm)/Tb (0.6 nm)](5) layers revealed a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Furthermore, depending on the Tb layer thickness, we confirmed the magnetization of the bottom CoFe layer to be either parallel or antiparallel to the applied field. Hence, the GMR behavior

could be controlled by tuning the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, i.e., it was switchable from inverse to normal GMR or from normal to inverse. PCI-34051 supplier Changes in GMR occurred at a compensation composition of CoFe and Tb for which no magnetization was observed due to antiferromagnetic cancellation of the Tb and CoFe moments. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565197]“
“Cytokinins may reflect soil water status and regulate rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain filling. This study investigated the changes in cytokinin levels in rice plants and their relations with grain filling under alternate wetting and drying irrigation. Two ‘super’ rice cultivars were field grown. Three irrigation regimes, alternate wetting and moderate soil drying (WMD), alternate wetting and severe soil drying (WSD), and conventional irrigation (CI, continuously flooded), were imposed after flowering. No significant differences in grain-filling rate, grain weight, and cytokinin content were observed for the earlier-flowering superior spikelets among the three irrigation regimes. find protocol For the later-flowering

inferior spikelets, however, their grain-filling rate and grain weight were significantly increased in the WMD and significantly reduced in the WSD when compared with those in the CI. Cytokinin contents in shoots (inferior spikelets and the flag leaves) in the WMD at the soil drying time were comparable with those in the CI, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 but they were significantly increased when plants were rewatered. The WSD significantly reduced cytokinin contents in the shoot either during soil drying or during the

rewatering period. Cytokinin contents in roots showed no significant difference between the WMD and CI regimes. The WSD increased trans-zeatin-type cytokinins, whereas it reduced isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins, in roots. Grain-filling rate and grain weight of inferior spikelets were very significantly correlated with cytokinin contents in these spikelets. The results suggest that a post-anthesis WMD holds great promise to improve grain filling of inferior spikelets through elevating cytokinin levels in the rice shoot.”
“The clinical manifestation and nuclear imaging findings in a 15-year-old boy with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis are described in this case report. The previously healthy patient presented with new onset hallucinations, seizure, and within a week, his mental status rapidly deteriorated to nonverbal with oro-lingual-facial dyskinesias. An extensive laboratory work-up for encephalopathy was negative. Repeated brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were normal.

In the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core, female G/G mice displayed lo

In the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core, female G/G mice displayed lower DAMGO-stimulated [S-35]GTP gamma S binding than female A/A mice, which is consistent with the DZNeP nmr previously reported deficiency in morphine-induced conditioned place preference in female G/G mice. In G/G mice, males showed higher DAMGO-stimulated [S-35]GTP gamma

S binding than females in the cingulate cortex, caudate putamen, NAc core, thalamus and amygdala. Thus, A112G SNP affects DAMGO-stimulated [S-35]GTP gamma S binding in region- and sex-specific manners.”
“The history of Armenian medicine is that of the common practice of medicine in caring for the sick through the ages, using mainly local medicinal herbs and natural products. Over the years, its practitioners persistently collected and recorded an expanding body of information on therapeutics and put it to use for the daily medical care of ordinary folks. Armenian medicine developed around the church and monasteries, which flourished during episodic periods of peace in an otherwise tumultuous and warring region. However, unlike the monastic medicine that developed in Europe, Armenian medicine maintained the rationality it had acquired from Greek medicine, and never resorted to magic, myth or amulets. Nor did it acquire or

import saints. Armenian medicine is a classic example of the evolving art of therapeutics, whose record is preserved in extant manuscripts, saved over the centuries in monasteries, and now preserved in accessible MAPK Inhibitor Library collections.”
“Limited blood supply to the thoracic chest wall is

a known risk factor for sternal wound complications Selleckchem GSK621 after CABG. Therefore, bilateral internal thoracic arteries are still rarely utilized despite their proven superior graft patency. The aim of our study was to analyse whether modification of the surgical technique is able to limit the risk of sternal wound complications in patients receiving bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting.

All 418 non-emergent CABG patients receiving bilateral internal thoracic artery CABG procedures (BITA) from January 2001 to January 2012 were analysed for sternal wound complications. Surgical technique together with known risk factors and relevant comorbidity were analysed for their effect on the occurrence of sternal wound complications by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Sternal wound complications occurred in 25 patients (5.9%), with a sternal dehiscence rate of 2.4% (10 patients). In multivariate analysis, diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.9-11.7, P = 0.001), but not obesity (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.7-4.2, P = 0.28) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 0.87-5.6, P = 0.1) was a relevant comorbid condition for sternal complications.

There were 87 complications

There were 87 complications Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor in 421 flaps, which was an overall rate of 21%. Suture line dehiscence was the most common complication with 27 cases (31%), followed by 22 cases of infection (25.2%), 17 cases of hematoma (19.5%), 12 cases of partial necrosis (13.7%) and 9 cases of total flap necrosis


Conclusion: Pressure ulcers in spinal cord-injured patients are very common and difficult and expensive to treat. The high rate of complications and the associated costs suggest the importance of evaluating the efficacy of treatment options. Conservative procedures have been standardized, but there still has been limited success in establishing guidelines on how to manage complications arising from flap surgery. Our extensive documentation of flap plastics will be useful managing complications after the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers in spinal cord-injured patients.”
“Objective: To discuss clinical studies in which recombinant human hyaluronidase

(rHuPH20) was used to increase insulin dispersion and accelerate its absorption.

Methods: We reviewed 10 pertinent clinical studies, 8 of which had data NVP-LDE225 available.

Results: In 4 euglycemic clamp studies, coinjection of rHuPH20 consistently yielded acceleration of insulin absorption, providing twice the insulin exposure during the first hour, greater and earlier peak exposure, and half the exposure beyond 2 hours after injection. Insulin-action profiles were similarly accelerated, with a 15-minute faster onset of insulin action and a 45-minute shorter duration of action for each of the 3 commercial rapid-acting insulin analogues. Infusion aspart insulin formulated with rHuPH20 also accelerated insulin absorption and action over the infusion set life when delivered by insulin pump. Administration Captisol mw of rHuPH20 reduced

the inconsistency of insulin absorption and action profiles attributable to 3 factors lack of reproducibility after identical injections, differences across insulin dose ranges, and changes over infusion site life. The rHuPH20-facilitated ultrafast profile consistently reduced hyperglycemic excursions both in injections immediately preceding liquid test meals and in bolus infusions immediately before solid test meals. rHuPH20-facilitated insulin administration has been well tolerated, with safety and tolerability similar to those with the comparator insulin alone.

Conclusion: rHuPH20 accelerates insulin-action profiles to an extent comparable to the difference between rapid-acting insulin analogue profiles and those of regular insulin. Studies are currently under way to characterize the effect on diabetes management end points (including hemoglobin A(1c), blood glucose, and rates of hyperglycemia) of insulin analogues coformulated with rHuPH20 for treatment of both type I and type 2 diabetes. (Endocr Pract.

RESULTS: The average annual risk for a child in Benin of becoming

RESULTS: The average annual risk for a child in Benin of becoming infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was around 0.5% in the mid 1980s. The notification rate increased by approximately 1% each year over the observation period and was on average 35 per 100000 population, with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1.8 and no shift in the age structure of the cases over the observation period. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 14% (97% of Salubrinal inhibitor the patients were tested).

There is a strong gradient of incident notification rates from the north to the south of the country that seems to be related to the population density.

CONCLUSION: Both the tuberculin skin test survey results and the notification data suggest that the TB problem in Benin is much smaller than in eastern and southern African countries.”
“This work was done as a part of our ongoing projects to catalog the chemical constituents and biological activities of the Morinda species growing in Vietnam. Phytochemical BLZ945 inhibitor investigations of the methanol extract of Morinda umbellata aerial parts resulted in the isolation of two new 11-noriridoids, umbellatolides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by NMR (H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, HSQC, HMBC, H-1-H-1 COSY, and NOESY) and FTICRMS data. This is

the first report of 11-noriridoids from M. umbellata. The cytotoxic activity and protective effect on oxidative stress injury stimulated by H2O2 in murine hepatocyte of 1 and 2 were also evaluated. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“SETTING: HM781-36B cost The main tuberculosis (TB) centre in Benin, West Africa, where only 2% of adult pulmonary TB cases arc sputum smear-negative, all other pulmonary cases being smear-positive.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB among TB suspects in Cotonou, and to estimate the total number of non-smear-positive TB cases at country level.

DESIGN: For 1 year, one

morning sputum culture was performed for every TB suspect (cough lasting > 3 weeks, as defined in Benin’s national guidelines) with three negative sputum smears (fluorescence technique).

RESULTS: Of 214 TB suspects for whom culture was performed, only 22 smear-negative, culture-positive cases were identified. During the same period, 831 sputum smear-positive cases were diagnosed. Culture therefore contributed only 2.6% of the total number of bacteriologically proven cases.

CONCLUSION: These results show the relatively low input of culture in TB diagnosis among chronic coughers in Cotonou, Benin, and demonstrates that the expected number of non-smear-positive TB cases in Benin is probably much lower than the World Health Organization’s current annual estimates.