This is a result not only of an increasing awareness of the disease, but also of social pressure. Positive events related to VCT were frequent and negative events were rare. More research on pressure from peers and sex-work gatekeepers (pimps, bar managers, etc.) to engage in health behaviours is needed, particularly at a time when universal testing is encouraged and when the benefits of treatment as prevention are recognized. As recommended by the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention and the World Health Organization, in order to increase HIV testing uptake and normalize testing [43,44], the VCT intervention in this study was provider-initiated. However, an opt-in formula was used instead of the opt-out strategy recommended by these international guidelines. An opt-out strategy is recommended over an opt-in strategy to Cell Cycle inhibitor GS-1101 solubility dmso maximize testing uptake, but concerns have been raised about the fact that patients might be tested without their knowledge or without understanding that testing is optional
[15,45,46]. Moreover, women in particular may choose not to be tested because of possible adverse consequences . In this highly stigmatized and vulnerable population of FSWs, an opt-out strategy could lead to more pressure for testing and disclosure of serostatus from health agents, those in the sex work industry or the FSW’s entourage. An opt-out strategy could then lead to avoidance of the health centre to avoid testing, as noted by participants in routine mafosfamide testing in Botswana  and as reported by women not attending the AHS in our qualitative data. However, an opt-out strategy could be adopted in this setting
when the intervention is better known and FSWs better informed of their rights related to testing and confidentiality of serostatus. Interventions and public health policy should be integrated to target all sex work stakeholders, including sex work site managers. In addition, it is necessary to reinforce medical support and confidentiality and to encourage health professional training in offering psychosocial support. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the International Development Research Center (IDRC), the scientific chair Analyse et Évaluation des Interventions en Santé (AnÉIS) of the University of Montreal, and Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR). We also wish to thank Kimberly Munro and Catherine Pirkle for reviewing the manuscript and our research partners in Conakry (the SIDA3, INSPQ, FMG and Madina health centres) for their contributions to this study. “
“Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701 is strongly associated with developing a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir (ABC) in White and Hispanic subjects. Across the UK, limited data exist on HLA-B*5701 prevalence in HIV-1-infected subjects. We determined HLA-B*5701 prevalence in the general HIV-1-infected population and in specific ethnic groups, particularly Black Africans who, in general, exhibit greater genetic diversity.