Peroxiredoxins are capable of protecting cells from ROS toxicity

Peroxiredoxins are capable of protecting cells from ROS toxicity and regulating signal transduction pathways Tozasertib solubility dmso that use c-Abl, caspases, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and activator protein-1 to influence cell growth and apoptosis. Evidence is fast growing

that oxidative stress is important not only for normal cell physiology but also for many pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer [5–8]. Reactive oxygen species participate in carcinogenesis in all stages, including initiation, promotion, and progression [5] Levels of ROS such as O2 – are increased in breast cancer [9, 10]. The production of ROS accelerates tumor induction [11]. In vitro, Prx genes I-IV are overexpressed

when H2O2 concentration in cells is elevated [12]. Peroxiredoxin I, a cytosol form, is the most abundant and ubiquitously distributed member of the mammalian Prx family, and it has been identified in a large variety of organisms. It has been suggested that Prx I regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by its interaction with oncogene products such as c-Abl. Peroxiredoxin I has been investigated in various human cancer samples as a potential marker. The reports cited above support that Prx I may be closely EPZ015938 concentration associated with cancers. Nevertheless, the connection between Prx I and cancer has not yet been clearly defined. Elevated expressions of Prx I have been observed in several human cancers, including lung, breast, esophagus, oral, and thyroid [13–15]. In oral squamous cell cancer, Yanagawa et al. [15] found low levels of Prx I expression associated with larger tumor

masses, medroxyprogesterone lymph node metastases, and poorly differentiated cancers. In contrast, Karihtala et al. [16] found no correlation between Prx I expression and clinicopathological features in breast cancer. Instead, levels of expression of Prxs III, IV, and V were significantly higher when breast cancers were poorly differentiated, suggesting their relationship to breast cancer. There are two major Prx subfamilies. One subfamily uses two conserved cysteines (2-Cys), and the other uses one cysteine (1-Cys) to scavenge H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxides. Four mammalian 2-Cys members (Prx I-IV) use thioredoxin (Trx) as the electron donor for antioxidation [17]. Thioredoxin as an antioxidant protein is induced by various kinds of oxidative stresses [18–21]. Similar to Prxs, Trx plays an important role in regulating cancer cell growth, for example, by modulating the DNA binding activity of transcription factors, including nuclear factor-κB, p53, and glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors [22–25]. Thioredoxin may be closely associated with cancers. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-Trx Romidepsin cost antibody has shown the expression of Trx in a number of human cancer tissues, including liver, colon, pancreas, and uterine cervix [26–28].

It was shown that the transformation efficiency of the test group

Furthermore, to validate the PU-H71 manufacturer Expression of Mtb Hsp16.3 protein in the cells, western blot analysis was performed using anti-Mtb Hsp16.3 and the results demonstrated that Mtb Hsp16.3 was strongly expressed in the test group of U937 cells (Figure  1C). Figure 1 The integrase-deficient lentivirus vector (IDLV) transfected U937 cells with high efficiency and

the cells expressed Mtb Hsp16.3. An IDLV delivered the transgene into U937 ARN-509 chemical structure macrophages for instantaneous expression. The fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used at 64 h after infection to detect GFP and analyse the transduction efficiency. A, the transduction efficiency of the test group of U937 cells (expressing Mtb Hsp16.3 and GFP) was 73%. B, the transduction efficiency

of the control group (expressing GFP only) was 82%. C, western blot analysis with antibodies against Mtb Hsp16.3; β-actin was used as a loading control. Expression profiles of miRNAs in U937 cells from the test group and the control group To determine the miRNA profiles for the two groups, the Exiqon miRCURY™ LNA Array was employed to perform the 2043 miRNAs assay (1898 human find more and 145 human viral miRNAs represented in the Sanger miRBase v18.0). After normalization and unsupervised filtering (see Methods), the obtained average values for each miRNA spot were used for statistical analysis. Comparing the data from the two groups (test/control) and using fold change filtering (upregulated more than 2-fold and downregulated less than 0.5-fold ), total of 149 differentially expressed miRNAs was identified, of which 60 were upregulated (Table  1) and 89 were downregulated (Table  2). The P values for these 149 miRNAs were less than 0.05 in the test groups compared to results for the control groups. Table 1 Summary of upregulated miRNAs Name Fold

change P value Chr. Loc. Name Fold change P value Chr. Loc. hsa-miR-2355-3p 2.00 0.00162 2 hsa-miR-133b 4.30 0.00992 6 hsa-miR-451a 2.20 0.01085 17 hsa-miR-4664-3p 4.31 0.00022 8 hsa-miR-130b-3p 2.30 0.04627 22 hsa-miR-4431 4.35 0.00368 2 hsa-miR-486-5p however 2.32 0.00208 8 hsa-miR-4804-3p 4.36 0.00023 5 hsa-miR-361-5p 2.33 0.04722 X hsa-miR-18b-3p 4.62 0.00191 X hsa-miR-3156-3p 2.50 0.00729 10 hsa-miR-675-3p 4.68 0.00028 11 hsa-miR-4728-3p 2.67 0.00029 17 hsa-miR-550b-3p 4.72 0.01382 7 hsa-miR-3191-5p 2.67 0.00020 19 hsa-miR-551a 4.75 0.00063 1 hsa-miR-296-5p 2.71 0.04951 20 hsa-miR-4685-3p 5.04 0.00090 10 hsa-miR-150-5p 2.85 0.00927 19 hsa-miR-23c 5.11 0.00081 X hsa-miR-4540 2.86 0.01280 9 hsa-miR-5002-3p 5.14 0.00035 3 hsa-miR-4268 2.97 0.00969 2 hsa-miR-5689 5.33 0.00054 6 hsa-miR-1236 3.08 0.04877 6 hsa-miR-935 5.43 0.00187 19 hsa-miR-221-5p 3.16 0.03132 X hsa-miR-374b-3p 5.79 5.

Authors’ contributions SZR fabricated and measured the cross-poin

Authors’ contributions SZR fabricated and measured the cross-point memory devices under the instruction of SM. SM arranged and finalized the manuscript. Both authors contributed to the preparation and revision of the manuscript and approved it for publication.”
“Background In the last YM155 cell line decades, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been extensively investigated because they are attractive

structures for electronic and optoelectronic advanced devices [1–3]. The characteristics of these QDs can be modified by controlling the growth parameters in order to fulfil the requirements of each device. Often, well-ordered and similar-sized QDs are required in order to take advantage of their discrete energy levels for intermediate band solar cells [4], lasers [5], and photodetectors [6]. This order can be achieved by stacking Volasertib mw several layers of QDs forming a QD matrix or superlattice. During the epitaxial growth, the strain fields of the buried QDs have

a large influence in the formation of the subsequent C646 cell line layer as it determines the nucleation sites of the incoming stacked QDs [7, 8]. The complex strain fields around a QD can produce vertical or inclined alignments [9, 10], anti-alignments [11], or random distributions of the QDs [12], having a strong effect on the optoelectronic behaviour [13]. The simulation of the strain–stress fields in a semiconductor material in order to predict the location of stacked nearly QDs lead to a better understanding of the behaviour of these complex

nanostructures. The finite elements method (FEM) is a widespread tool to calculate the strain and stress fields in semiconductor nanostructures, and it has been used in the study of QDs [11, 14, 15], QRings [16], or QWires [17]. In order to obtain reliable predictions by FEM, the simulations should be based in experimental composition data, because of the large impact of the concentration profile of the QD systems in the strain of the structure [18]. However, because of the difficulties in obtaining three-dimensional (3D) composition data with atomic resolution, many authors use theoretical compositions [11, 19], or two-dimensional (2D) experimental composition data (obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy [20] or extrapolating composition concentration profiles measured by the lattice fringe analysis technique [21]). This makes a direct correlation between the predictions and the experimental results unfeasible, and prevents from verifying the accuracy of FEM in predicting the nucleation sites of QDs. To solve this, 3D composition data with atomic resolution should be collected. One of the most powerful techniques to obtain 3D composition data is atom probe tomography (APT).

The case being made for increased administration of tranexamic ac

The case being made for increased administration of tranexamic acid is bolstered by the lack of increased thromboembolic events selleck products observed in the CRASH-2 trial. In Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), a reduction in the number of blood transfusions has also been observed with no increase in symptomatic thromboembolic phenomena [30]. Tranexamic acid may not only be helpful from a biological perspective, but also in a monetary manner, in reducing resources in obtaining and providing blood products [30, 31]. Limitations The main limitations of this study are its retrospective nature, small size of the severely acidotic (pH ≤ 7.02) subgroup, and the changes learn more over time with respect to the use of rFVIIa.

Towards the start of the study period, this drug was dosed as low as 17.1µg/kg, and was considered as a final alternative therapy. However, further to research advances at the time, a shift towards increased doses and earlier use was noted by the year 2002, which continued to evolve until the end of the study period. This may also have had some impact

upon observed results. The pH data reflects the patient’s condition on arrival, which might not represent changes in degrees of acidosis immediately before the administration of the drug. However, the drug was administered buy Cediranib only 3.7h after admission for the severely acidotic group and 6.2h for the less acidotic patients when other standard therapies had failed; thus a worsening pH level is intuitively expected in these clinical situations. The area under the ROC curve was tabulated to be 0.70, indicating potential for a more accurate cutoff for determining

at which pH range the administration of rFVIIa should be more reserved. Finally, we did not have information on all co-morbidities that Isotretinoin may have contributed to mortality. Conclusions Our study found no utility of rFVIIa in treating coagulopathic trauma patients with pH ≤ 7.02 and high rates of bleeding (4 units of RBC/h); and thus restrictions should be set on its usage in these circumstances. Furthermore, the lack of evidence demonstrating any survival benefit of rFVIIa in trauma, in conjunction with the potential increased risk of thromboembolic complications and high monetary costs of its off-label use, renders its utility highly questionable in such situations. Future research should be conducted in finding alternatives to rFVIIa in the management of trauma coagulopathy. We hope our findings will guide physicians when deciding on the inclusion of this drug as part of massive transfusion protocols in trauma. Acknowledgments The authors thank Cyndy Rogers, Bill Sharkey, Ahmed Coovadia and Connie Colavecchia for their contribution in providing trauma registry and blood bank data. This article has been published as part of World Journal of Emergency Surgery Volume 7 Supplement 1, 2012: Proceedings of the World Trauma Congress 2012. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://​www.​wjes.​org/​supplements/​7/​S1.

Effects of race on outcome measures were also assessed, as racial

Effects of race on outcome measures were also assessed, as racial differences in serum 25(OH)D levels have been described previously by our group [11] and others [14, 15]. Nocodazole We hypothesized that vitamin D status would improve in Selleckchem GS-4997 Soldiers training during the early spring months in the Southeastern US, as solar load increases in this location during the early spring, and that indicators of both bone formation and resorption would be increased in response to the physical activity experienced during military training. Methods Participants This study was approved by the Human Use

Review Committee at the United States (US) Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine and was conducted MI-503 order at Fort Jackson, SC between the months of February and April. Human volunteers participated in this study after giving their free and informed consent. Investigators adhered to US Army Regulation 70–25 and US Army Medical Research and Material Command regulation 70–25 on the participation of volunteers in research. The data provided in this report were collected as a part of a larger study assessing cardiometabolic risk in military recruits [16]. A total of 91 female Soldiers consented to participate in the present study. Body composition and demographic data were collected within one wk of

the start (baseline) and completion (wk 9) of BCT. Hematological data were collected at four timepoints through BCT; at baseline and wk 3, 6, and 9. A total of 71 HAS1 female Soldiers were included in the statistical analysis; volunteers were excluded from statistical analysis if they withdrew from the study, separated from the Army or their baseline or wk 9 data were missing. Demographic characteristics of the volunteers appear in Table 1. Table 1 Female volunteer characteristics

at baseline*   Group (n = 71) White (n = 45) Non-white (n = 26) Age, yr 23.1 ± 0.7 23.5 ± 1.0 22.4 ± 0.9 Height, cm 162.7 ± 0.7 163.1 ± 0.8 162.2 ± 1.3 Weight, kg 66.1 ± 1.0 64.9 ± 1.3 68.1 ± 1.4 BMI, kg/m2 24.9 ± 0.3 24.4 ± 0.4 25.9 ± 0.4† Body Fat,% 26.6 ± 0.7 25.2 ± 0.8 28.9 ± 1.0 Race, n       White or Caucasian 45     Black or African American 18     Asian 1     Other 7     * Mean ± SEM; † Different from white (P < 0.05). Basic combat training The BCT course is the initial exposure to military training for individuals who enlist in the US Army. It is a 9–10 wk course that consists of both outdoor and indoor classroom training [17]. However, during most portions of the training, Soldiers wear combat uniforms which allow exposure of only the hands, neck, and face to the sun. Physical training is conducted outdoors and is comprised of aerobic (i.e., road marching, navigating obstacle courses, and running) and strength-training activities (i.e., calisthenics, push-ups, and sit-ups).

Nominal In0 18Ga0 82N (1 nm)/GaN (10 nm) MQWs are grown using tri

Nominal In0.18Ga0.82N (1 nm)/GaN (10 nm) MQWs are grown using trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa) and NH3 as described in [18] and coated by a p-GaN layer doped in the 1017-cm−3 range using TMGa, NH3 and bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (Cp2Mg). Electroluminescence (EL) measurements shown in Figure 4 were carried out on a probe station under continuous-wave (CW) operation and ambient conditions on single standing LED wires. As shown in the inset, the current is injected into the wires from a 2-μm radius metallic tip on the external sidewall p-doped layer and collected through the n-core wire, the AlN/SiN x interface and the 275-μm-thick Si substrate

(phosphorus-doped with a 10−2 Ω cm resistivity). EL spectra for different CW currents ranging from 2 to 60 μA have been obtained for high voltage bias between 40 and 20 V. This high turn-on voltage (V on) can be attributed to the electrical injection Entinostat that involves two barriers coming from the wire/Si and wire/tip interfaces in addition to the resistive

behaviour of the Si substrate. The AlN layer has a bandgap of approximately 6.2 eV and a conduction band offset with respect to Si (GaN) Selleck GSK1904529A estimated to be approximately 2.3 (2.1) eV [19, 20]. These barriers do not explain however the very high V on of the device. For a comparison, the electron injection through a thick AlGaN/AlN epilayer has been reported to be only about 4 V [21]. Therefore, the high turn-on voltage can be mainly attributed selleck compound to the contact between the metallic tip and the p-doped part of the structure. This assumption has been confirmed by the connection

of an assembly of wires by indium titanium oxide exhibiting V on ~ 10 V [13]. The EL spectra exhibit a violet emission centred at 420 nm and no defect band (the usual yellow band being close to 550 nm). These results demonstrate the possibility to make a wire-based LED device on silicon by MOVPE. A weaker low-energy contribution is also measured at 460 nm. The origin of these two contributions has been assigned MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit by cathodoluminescence mapping [5] to the presence of both radial (420 nm) and axial (460 nm) MQWs inside the wires (note that these luminescence peaks are also measured for wires that are not coated by the Mg-doped GaN shell). The 40-nm shift of the wavelength could be attributed to the variations of the In composition, well thickness and/or to the influence of the electric field [18] corresponding to the c- or m-plane MQW growth orientations. The influence of the internal electric field on the luminescence wavelength is negligible due to the small thickness of the wells (estimated to be 1 nm by TEM observations). This point is also confirmed by the lack of any significant peak shifts with increasing current density.

With an OD600nm

threshold of 0 15, ∆SGT values were calcu

With an OD600nm

threshold of 0.15, ∆SGT values were calculated as: ΔSGT = (SGT Treated (meropenem) − SGT Normalizer (untreated)) for each sample. The relative size of the antibiotic tolerant Evofosfamide order persister subpopulation in each mutant’s culture was calculated as the log2 fold of change (−∆∆SGT) where: ΔΔSGT = (ΔSGT Sample (mvfRor pqsBC)) − ΔSGT Calibrator (PA14)). Figure 2 Example of SGT method use: assessment of the relative bactericidal activity of meropenem on various P. aeruginosa isogenic mutants. (A) Wild-type PA14 (blue) and its isogenic mutant derivatives mvfR (black) and pqsBC (red) were grown to mid-logarithmic phase before being subjected to a 24 h treatment with meropenem (10 mg/L) at 37°C (no meropenem added to normalizers). Following 1:500 dilution, the growth kinetics of normalizers and treated samples were recorded. Employing an OD600nm = 0.15, ∆SGT values were calculated as the difference between treated and normalizer SGTs. ∆∆SGT values were calculated as

the difference of between ∆SGTs of the mutants to that of wild-type PA14, which served as the calibrator. (B) For the SGT method, log2 fold of change was calculated as -∆∆SGT (empty bars). For CFU counting, normalizers and treated cells were serially diluted and plated. For comparison purposes, CFU count results are also presented as log2 fold of change (filled bars). The differences between the values obtained by the two methods did not differ significantly (p > 0.1). The mvfR mutant cells had a lower number (log2 fold change of −3.0 ± 0.29) and pqsBC mutant cells had a higher number (log2 fold change of Ruxolitinib concentration 2.1 ± 0.07) of surviving cells than wild-type PA14 cells (Figure SB-3CT 2B). There was a strong concordance between these SGT data and CFU data obtained in parallel (p > 0.1), providing validation of the SGT method (Figure 2B). Example 2: Screening for a compound’s effect on the size of an antibiotic tolerant subpopulation Another practical application of the SGT method is screening for compounds that affect the formation of antibiotic tolerant cells. To demonstrate this application, we

examined the effects of four compounds on the size of persister subpopulations in PA14 cultures exposed to a lethal dose of meropenem (10 mg/L). see more Specifically, the compounds used were: (i) the HAQ precursor anthranilic acid (AA) [16]; (ii) the AA analog 3-AA; and the two antibiotics (iii) gentamicin and (iv) ciprofloxacin (Figure 3A). Figure 3 Example of SGT method use: assessment of the relative efficacy of compounds on the size of the persister cell fraction using the SGT method. (A) PA14 cells were grown to the mid-logarithmic stage (arrow) in the absence or presence of AA (0.75 mM), 3-AA (0.75 mM), gentamicin (Gent, 1.5 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro, 0.04 mg/L). Meropenem was applied as in Figure 2. (B) A comparison of survival fraction sizes obtained by SGT (empty bars) and CFU counting (filled bars) methods, presented as log2 fold change.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of HDAC8

The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of HDAC8 LY2835219 as a therapeutic target. Overexpression of HDAC8 has been reported in a considerable number of different cancer entities [26,34,36,37]. In neuroblastoma, in particular, HDAC8 expression was significantly correlated with further poor prognostic markers as well as poor overall and progression-free survival. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 in neuroblastoma significantly decreased proliferation rate and reduced clonogenic growth, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation [34]. In hepatocellular carcinoma HDAC8 knockdown also suppresses cell proliferation and enhances apoptosis via elevated

expression of p53 and acetylation of p53 at Lys382 [36]. As there were indications from our own and other data that HDAC8 is often upregulated in urothelial carcinoma as well [39,44], the question arose Cilengitide supplier whether HDAC8 might be a potential target for anticancer treatment in this tumor. In urothelial cancer cell lines, a variable expression of HDAC8 was observed both at mRNA and protein level [39]. Importantly, mRNA expression levels were comparable to neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells (data not Selleck EX 527 shown). An according variability has also been reported

from investigations in further malignomas, e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, were also a broad range of HDAC8 expression was observed in cancer cell lines [36]. Differences between mRNA and protein expression indicate that HDAC8 expression and activity in UCCs may be regulated both transcriptionally and on the protein level, e.g. by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation [30,31]. In addition, in our UCC panel, a low HDAC8 expression was predominantly observed in UCCs with an epithelial Janus kinase (JAK) phenotype. Therefore, to cover this range both on protein and mRNA

level, we chose to apply a panel of 6 cell lines representing the heterogeneity of the HDAC8 expression instead of focusing on one urothelial cancer cell line. SiRNA targeting of HDAC8 in UCCs caused a significant reduction of proliferation up to 45% and inhibited clonogenic growth in a cell line-dependent manner. These results were comparable to observations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and neuroblastoma cells [34,36]. Clonogenic growth was most decreased in the mesenchymal cell line SW-1710 which presented the highest HDAC8 protein expression. Treatment with the three different HDAC8 inhibitors c2, c5 and c6 revealed a low sensitivity of UCCs for c2 with a calculated IC50 value greater than 50 μM. In contrast, neuroblastoma cell lines (BE (2)-C) were more sensitive to treatment with c2, presenting IC50 values in a range of 10 to 40 μM. In these cells, the HDAC8 inhibitor c2 yielded an similar phenotype at a concentration similar to the in vitro IC50 of c2 against HDAC8 [41].

Figure 3 Peptide quantitation of proteins expressed by C and S MA

Figure 3 Peptide quantitation of proteins expressed by C and S MAP strains under iron-replete conditions: Reporter ion regions (114 – 117 m/z) of peptide tandem mass spectrum from iTRAQ labeled peptides from the (A) 35-kDa major membrane protein (MAP2121c) and (B) BfrA, and the intergenic regions of MAP1508-1509 and MAP2566-2567c. Quantitation of peptides and inferred proteins are made from relative peak areas of reporter ions. Several unique peptides (>95% confidence) were mapped to each protein. However,

mTOR inhibitor only one representative peptide is shown for each protein. Peptides obtained from cattle MAP cultures grown in iron-replete and iron-limiting medium were labeled with 114 and 115 reporter ions, respectively. Peptides obtained from sheep MAP cultures grown in iron-replete and iron-limiting medium were labeled with 116 and 117 reporter ions, respectively. The peptide sequences and shown in the parenthesis and the red dashed line

illustrates the reporter ion relative peak intensities. MAP2121c alone was upregulated in the sheep MAP strain under iron-replete conditions. As expected, transcripts identified as upregulated under iron-replete conditions in C MAP strain were also upregulated in the proteome (Table 3, Additional file 1, Table S10). There was increased expression of five ribosomal proteins and a ribosome releasing factor (MAP2945c) by cattle MAP under iron-replete conditions. As previously reported, BfrA was upregulated in cattle MAP (Figure 3B). Antigen 85A and MAP0467c (mycobacterial heme, JNJ-26481585 utilization and degrader) were also upregulated. However, MAP0467c and other P505-15 manufacturer stress response proteins were downregulated in the S MAP strain (Figure 4). Figure 4 Proteins expressed by type II MAP under iron-replete conditions: Proteins upregulated in cattle MAP strain whereas downregulated in sheep strain in the presence of iron. Fold change for each target is calculated Calpain and represented as a ratio of iron-replete/iron-limitation.

A negative fold change represents repression and a positive fold change indicates de-repression of that particular target gene in the presence of iron. MhuD = mycobacterial heme utilization, degrader; USP = universal stress protein; CHP = conserved hypothetical protein; MIHF = mycobacterial integration host factor; CsbD = general stress response protein Identification of unannotated MAP proteins We identified two unique peptides (SSHTPDSPGQQPPKPTPAGK and TPAPAKEPAIGFTR) that originated from the unannotated MAP gene located between MAP0270 (fadE36) and MAP0271 (ABC type transporter). We also identified two peptides (DAVELPFLHK and EYALRPPK) that did not map to any of the annotated MAP proteins but to the amino acid sequence of MAV_2400. Further examination of the MAP genome revealed that the peptides map to the reversed aminoacid sequence of MAP1839. These two unique proteins were not differentially regulated in response to iron.

5 95 9 5 95 26 1050 8 8 100 8 100 27 1090 9 17 53 13 5 67 28 1090

5 95 9.5 95 26 1050 8 8 100 8 100 27 1090 9 17 53 13.5 67 28 1090 10 12.3 82 10 100 29 1200 4 4 100 4 100 30 1200 6 6 100 6 100 31 1220 5 5.5 91 5 100 32 1250 4 4.5 89 4 100 33 1250 6 8 75 6 100 34 1400 6 6 100 6 100 35 1400 7 9 78 7.5 93 36 1430 7 7 100 7 100 37 1450 5 5 100 5 100 38 1450 6 6.5 92 6.5 92 39 1470 5 5.5 91 5.5 91 40 1480 6 6 100 6 100 41 1800 5 5 100 5 100 42 1820 5 5 100 5 100 43 1880 1 1 100 1 100 44 1880 4 4 100 6 67 45 2170 4 4 100 4.5 89 GDC-0449 solubility dmso 46 2170 3 3.5 86 3 100 47 2380 2 2.5 80 2.5 80 48 2380 2 2 100 2 100 49 2420 1 1 100 1 100 50 2420 1 1 100 1 100 On average 95% (Chao 1: 93%, Chao 2: 96%) of estimated species richness was found in the plots References Appanah S, Nor SM (1991)

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type, condition, and threats in a poorly known ecoregion: Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biotropica 39:747–759CrossRef Chao A (1987) Estimating the population size for capture-recapture data with unequal catchability. Biometrics 43:783–791PubMedCrossRef Clayton LM, Milner-Gulland EJ, Sarjono AP (2002) Sustainability find more of rattan harvesting in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. In: Maunder M, Clubbe C, Hankamer C et al (eds) Plant conservation in the tropics: perspectives and practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 445–466 Condit R, Pitman N, Leigh Jr et al (2002) Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science 295:666–669PubMedCrossRef Culmsee H, Pitopang R (2009) Tree diversity in sub-montane and lower montane primary rain forests in Central Sulawesi. Blumea 54:119–123 Currie DJ, Kerr JT (2008) Tests of the mid-domain hypothesis: a review of the evidence.