The first arriving male is assured of access to a virgin female,

The first arriving male is assured of access to a virgin female, as his intermediate location between see more the vulva and subsequently arriving males blocks these competitors. Males deposit an adhesive gelatinous copulatory plug into and over the vulva before departing the female.

Fecundity was greater in larger mating clusters, but this was a function of a greater rate of molting which is a prerequisite for mating. Males compete for virgin females by emerging and molting to the adult stage earlier than females. Mating aggregations have previously only been examined in snakes, but these studies have tended to be observational as snakes offer a challenging system for study. The relatively easy to culture and manipulate mermithid system may offer a model for experimental studies of male-male competition, protandry, copulatory plugs and female choice in mating clusters. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a serious complication in about 10% to 20% of monozygous twin gestations with an incidence of 4% to 35% in the United States. Severe TTTS is reported to occur in 5.5% to 17.5% of cases.

TTTS is a progressive disease in which sudden deteriorations in clinical status can occur, leading to death of a co-twin. Up to 30% of survivors may have abnormal neurodevelopment as a result of the combination of profound antenatal insult and the complications of severe prematurity. GDC 0032 manufacturer This article presents an overview of what is known about the pathophysiology and the diagnosis of TTTS, the role of echocardiography in TTTS, treatment options available for TTTS, complications of treatment for TTTS, and short- and long-term outcomes of TTTS.”
“Maize (Zea mays L.) has a lot of dietary

and industrial value around the globe and its yield potential is being extremely affected by abiotic stresses i.e., drought and soil salinity/sodicity etc. However, damaging effects MLN4924 mouse of abiotic stresses can be ameliorated by the combined application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mineral fertilizers. Therefore this field trial was designed to explore the effect of PGPR containing ACC deaminase (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase) alone and in combination with mineral fertilizers on yield and nutrient uptake of maize under drought in saline field. Two PGPR strains S-1 (Pseudomonas syringae) and S-2 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) were applied to the maize seeds in separate and along with full and half dose of recommended NPK fertilizers. Drought stress was imposed generally on whole experiment at tasseling by withholding irrigation up to similar to 50% field capacity (FC) level. The PGPR strains significantly improved the yield of maize when applied alone and further promising results were obtained when applied with mineral fertilizers.

Circulating levels of both miRNAs were similar among healthy cont

Circulating levels of both miRNAs were similar among healthy controls but were significantly lower in

MDS patients (P =.001 and P <.001, respectively). The distributions of these 2 miRNA levels were bimodal in MDS patients, and these levels were significantly associated with their progression-free survival and overall survival (both P <.001 for let-7a; P <.001 and P =.001 for miR-16). This association persisted even after patients were stratified according to the International Prognostic Scoring System. Multivariate analysis revealed that let-7a level was a strong independent predictor for overall survival in this patient cohort. These findings suggest that let-7a and miR-16 plasma selleck products levels can serve as noninvasive prognostic markers in MDS patients. (Blood. 2011; 118(2): 413-415)”
“Aconitases (Acn) are iron sulfur proteins that catalyse the reversible isomerization of citrate and isocitrate Mizoribine via the intermediate cis-aconitate in the Krebs cycle. Some Acn proteins are bifunctional and under conditions of iron starvation and oxidative stress lose their iron sulfur clusters and become post-transcriptional

regulators by binding specific mRNA targets. Many bacterial species possess two genetically distinct aconitase proteins, AcnA and AcnB. Current understanding of the regulation and functions of AcnA and AcnB in dual Acn bacteria is based on a model developed in Escherichia coli. Thus, AcnB is the major Krebs cycle enzyme expressed during exponential growth, whereas AcnA is a more stable, stationary phase and stress-induced enzyme, and both E. coli Acns are bi-functional. Here a second dual Acn bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), has been analysed. Phenotypic traits of S. Typhimurium acn mutants were consistent with AcnB acting as the major Acn protein. Promoter fusion experiments indicated that acnB transcription was similar to 10-fold greater than that of acnA and that acnA expression was regulated by the cyclic-AMP receptor protein (CRP, glucose starvation), the fumarate nitrate reduction

regulator (FNR, oxygen starvation), the ferric uptake regulator (Fur, iron starvation) Selleckchem CT99021 and the superoxide response protein (SoxR, oxidative stress). In contrast to E. coli, S. Typhimurium acnA was not induced in the stationary phase. Furthermore, acnA expression was enhanced in an acnB mutant, presumably to partially compensate for the lack of AcnB activity. Isolated S. Typhimurium AcnA protein had kinetic and mRNA-binding properties similar to those described for E. coli AcnA. Thus, the work reported here provides a second example of the regulation and function of AcnA and AcnB proteins in a dual Acn bacterium.”
“Background: This paper reports findings from the prevalence survey conducted in Shandong China in 2010, a province with a population of 94 million.

One model based on basal area (BA) as a stand parameter was also

One model based on basal area (BA) as a stand parameter was also tested as an alternative approach for predicting aboveground biomass in the stand level. Belowground biomass was estimated by subsampling on 10 sample plots. Mean aboveground tree biomass (bole, branches and leaves) was estimated to be 62,965.5 kg ha(-1)(SE = 14.6%) and belowground biomass accounted for 37,501.8 kg ha(-1) (SE = 23%). The best-fit equation for the estimation of individual tree aboveground biomass include DBH and wood density as explanatory variables (R(2) = 0.898; SEE = 0.371) and is applicable for the diameter range of this study (5.0-27.6 cm) and in environments with similar conditions of

the cerrado s.s. sampled. In the stand level, the model tested presented a higher goodness of fit than the single tree models (R(2) – 0.934; SEE = 0.224). Our estimates of aboveground biomass are higher than reported by other studies developed in the same selleck compound physiognomy, but the estimates of Nepicastat cost belowground biomass are within the range of values reported in other studies from sites in cerrado s.s. Both biomass estimates, however, exhibit relatively large standard errors. The root-to-shoot ratio of the sample trees is in the magnitude of reported values for savanna ecosystems, but smaller than estimated from other studies in the cerrado s.s. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In this study, an exact analytical solution

for steady conductive heat transfer in multilayer spherical fiber reinforced composite laminates is presented

as the first time. Here, the orthotropic temperature distribution of laminate is obtained under the general linear boundary conditions that are suitable check details for various conditions including combinations of conduction, convection, and radiation both inside and outside of the sphere. The temperature and heat flux continuity is applied between the laminas. In order to obtain the exact solution, the separation of variables method is used and the set of equations related to the coefficient of Fourier-Legendre series of temperature distribution is solved using the recursive Thomas algorithm. The capability of the present solution is examined by applying it on two industrial applications for different fiber arrangements of multilayer spherical laminates. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Four species of genus Xiphovelia Lundblad are now known from China. Of these, X. glauca Esaki & Miyamoto, 1959 is the only member of the genus previously recorded from China. In addition, three species, X. denigrata sp. nov., X. fulva sp. nov. and X. reflexa sp. nov., are described as new to science. Photographs of the male and female dorsal habitus, male fore and middle legs, male abdominal segment VIII and endosoma with pygophore are provided, accompanied by habitat photographs and a distribution map for all Chinese Xiphovelia species.

4% “
“Gastrin, cholecystokinin2 receptor (CCK2R), and cycloo

“Gastrin, cholecystokinin2 receptor (CCK2R), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been implicated in the carcinogenesis and progression JNK-IN-8 concentration of gastric cancer. Our study demonstrated that antagonist or siRNA against CCK2R blocked amidated gastrin (G17)-induced activation of STAT3 and Akt in gastric

cancer cell lines. G17-increased COX-2 expression and cell proliferation were effectively blocked by CCK2R antagonist and inhibitors of JAK2 and PI3K. In addition, knockdown of STAT3 expression significantly attenuated G17-induced PI3K/Akt activation, COX-2 expression, and cell proliferation. These results suggest that CCK2R-mediated COX-2 up-regulation via JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferative effect of G17 on human gastric cancer cells. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Developing materials that are effective against sexually transmitted pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and HIV-1 is challenging both in terms of material selection and improving bio-membrane and cellular permeability at desired mucosa! 3-MA ic50 sites. Here, we engineered the prokaryotic bacterial virus (M13 phage) carrying two functional peptides, integrin binding peptide (RGD) and a segment of the polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) from Ct, as a phage-based material that

can ameliorate Ct infection. Ct is a globally prevalent human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or microbicides. We show that engineered phage stably express both RGD motifs and Ct peptides and traffic intracellularly and into the lumen of the inclusion in which the organism resides within the host cell. Engineered phage were able to significantly reduce Ct infection in both HeLa and primary endocervical cells compared with Ct infection alone. Selleckchem Temsirolimus Polyclonal antibodies raised against PmpD and co-incubated with constructs

prior to infection did not alter the course of infection, indicating that PmpD is responsible for the observed decrease in Ct infection. Our results suggest that phage-based design approaches to vector delivery that overcome mucosal cellular barriers may be effective in preventing Ct and other sexually transmitted pathogens. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Two modified beta-cyclodextrins, H-2 and H-3, having a flexible appended moiety were studied for the chiral discrimination of the enantiomers of various amino acids by means of fluorescence as signaling option. These hosts quenched the fluorescence intensities of amino acids upon binding. The D-enantiomers were better recognized by these hosts. The association constants (K-s) and enantioselectivity factors (a) of the host guest complexes were calculated.”
“Background: Enhanced attraction of selective vascular reparative cells is of great importance in order to increase vascular patency after endovascular treatments.

Results: Using this cut-off value of 3 7cm, 62 patients had large

Results: Using this cut-off value of 3.7cm, 62 patients had large-sized MG0103 tumors (LSTs, tumor size >= 3,7cm) and 53 had small-sized tumors (SSTs, tumor size

<3.7cm). Patients with LSTs had a significantly lower five-year OS rate than those with SSTs (60.7% vs. 88.4%, p=0.000). Depth of tumor invasion, histological type and tumor size were independent prognostic factors. In patients with pT2N0M0 stage tumors or pT2-3N0M0 stage patients with undifferentiated type tumors, five-year OS rates were significantly lower for LSTs than for SSTs (p<0.05 each). Conclusions: Tumor size is a prognostic factor in patients with pT2-3N0M0 stage. Especially for pT2N0M0 stage gastric cancer and pT2-3N0M0 stage gastric cancer with undifferentiated type tumors, the prognosis was poorer in patients with tumor size >= 3.7cm than that in patients with tumor size <3.7cm.”
“IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of renal failure worldwide. Treatment is limited because of a complex pathogenesis, including unknown factors favoring IgA1 deposition in the glomerular mesangium. IgA receptor abnormalities are implicated, including circulating IgA-soluble CD89 (sCD89) complexes and overexpression of the mesangial

IgA1 receptor, TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1). Herein, we show that although mice expressing both human IgA1 and CD89 displayed circulating and mesangial deposits of IgA1-sCD89 complexes resulting in kidney inflammation, GW-572016 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor hematuria, and proteinuria, mice expressing IgA1 only displayed endocapillary IgA1 deposition but neither mesangial injury nor kidney dysfunction. sCD89 injection into IgA1-expressing mouse recipients induced

mesangial IgA1 deposits. sCD89 was also detected in patient and mouse mesangium. IgA1 deposition learn more involved a direct binding of sCD89 to mesangial TfR1 resulting in TfR1 up-regulation. sCD89-TfR1 interaction induced mesangial surface expression of TGase2 (transglutaminase 2), which in turn up-regulated TfR1 expression. In the absence of TGase2, IgA1-sCD89 deposits were dramatically impaired. These data reveal a cooperation between IgA1, sCD89, TfR1, and TGase2 on mesangial cells needed for disease development. They demonstrate that TGase2 is responsible for a pathogenic amplification loop facilitating IgA1-sCD89 deposition and mesangial cell activation, thus identifying TGase2 as a target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.”
“PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assays (PERT) are sensitive tools for the detection of retroviruses in biological samples. The adaptation of real-time PCR techniques based on fluorescent probes (F-PERT) has added a reliable quantitative capacity to the assay. In the interest of economy and time, the SYBR Green I-based real-time detection system was used to establish a convenient one-step PERT assay (SG-PERT).

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics [DOI: 10 1063/1 3072717]“

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3072717]“
“The role of gastrectomy for patients with positive peritoneal cytology, but a negative macroscopic peritoneal implant (P-/cy+), 4SC-202 remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate laparoscopic gastrectomy for P-/cy+ patients.\n\nThis study reviewed a prospectively maintained gastric cancer database of gastric-cancer patients those underwent surgical resection. P-/cy+ gastric cancer that had invaded the subserosa, or deeper layers, of the stomach wall without distant organ metastases was considered operable in this

institution. P-/cy+ patients underwent either open or laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. The short-term results were examined to assess differences in outcome between the two groups.\n\nEighteen P-/cy+ patients without distant organ metastases underwent

surgery between 2000 and 2010. Laparoscopic gastrectomy was performed in nine patients and open gastrectomy in nine patients. The estimated blood loss was significantly smaller, the resumption of food intake earlier, and the length AZD2014 inhibitor of postoperative hospital stay shorter in the patients that underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy than in the patients that underwent open gastrectomy. There were no significant differences in the 2-year survival rates between the groups.\n\nLaparoscopic gastrectomy for P-/cy+ patients is a minimally MCC950 datasheet invasive and safe oncologic procedure with good short-term results.”
“Retrobulbar haemorrhage (RBH) is a well described condition which is said to be a common cause of acute proptosis following trauma, but the evidence for this is not strong. The authors reviewed 186 publications on the subject, finding 82

cases of RBH. related to trauma. This analysis suggests that in over half of the cases described, RBH was never proven conclusively. In the authors’ experience RBH is not a common cause of acute proptosis following trauma and other causes need to be considered if patients are to be managed appropriately.”
“Migration and globalization of the nursing workforce affect source countries and destination countries. Policies and regulations governing the movement of nurses from one country to another safeguard the public by ensuring educational comparability and competence. The global movement of nurses and other health care workers calls for quality and safety competencies that meet standards such as those defined by the Institute of Medicine. This article examines nurse migration and employment of internationally educated nurses (IENs) in the context of supporting and maintaining safe, quality patient care environments.

05) ADT+ participants also reported greater depressive symptomat

05). ADT+ participants also reported greater depressive symptomatology than both control groups at follow-up (ps smaller than 0.001). Rates

of clinically significant depressive symptomatology were higher in the ADT+ group than the ADT- and CA- groups at both time points (baseline: 28%, 5%, 12%; follow-up: 39%, 9%, 11%). ConclusionsFindings GDC-0068 price support the hypothesis that ADT administration yields increases in depression and suggest that the mechanism behind ADT’s association with depression should be explored and that prostate cancer patients treated with ADT should receive particular focus in depression screening and intervention. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Studies have reported inconsistent results concerning the association of cesarean section with offspring obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether cesarean section increases the risk of later overweight and obesity. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched using different combinations of two groups of keywords: ‘cesarean’ and ‘overweight/obesity’. Cohort or case-control studies that reported click here the association of cesarean section with childhood (3-8 years), adolescence (9-18 years) and/or adult (> 19 years) overweight/obesity were eligible. Where possible, adjusted risk estimates were pooled

using a random effects model; otherwise unadjusted estimates were pooled. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with selleck kinase inhibitor I-2 statistics; the values of 25%, 50% and 75% were considered to indicate low, medium and high heterogeneity, respectively. We conducted a subgroup analysis to identify the sources of heterogeneity according to study quality defined on the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. In total, two case-control and seven cohort studies were identified for the literature review and 15 separate risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled odds ratio (OR) of overweight/obesity for offspring delivered by cesarean section compared with those born vaginally was 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19, 1.48; I-2

63%); the OR was 1.32 (1.15, 1.51) for children, 1.24 (1.00, 1.54) for adolescents and 1.50 (1.02, 2.20) for adults. In subgroup analysis, the overall pooled OR was 1.18 (1.09, 1.27; I-2 29%) for high-quality studies and 1.78 (1.43, 2.22; I-2 24%) for medium-quality (P for interaction 0.0005); no low-quality studies were identified. The ORs for children, adolescents and adults all tended to be lower for high-quality studies compared with medium-quality studies. Our results indicated that cesarean section was moderately associated with offspring overweight and obesity. This finding has public health implications, given the increase in cesarean births in many countries.”
“Odor preference learning in the neonate rat follows pairing of odor input and noradrenergic activation of beta-adrenoceptors.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis

\n\nMethods: We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of published literature reporting individual-level PRNT titers to identify factors associated with heterogeneity in PRNT results and compared variation between strains within DENV serotypes and between articles using hierarchical models.\n\nResults: The literature

search and selection criteria identified 8 vaccine trials and 25 natural exposure studies reporting 4,411 titers from 605 individuals using 4 different neutralization percentages, 3 cell lines, 12 virus concentrations and 51 strains. Of 1,057 titers from primary DENV exposure, titers to the exposure serotype were consistently higher than titers to non-exposure serotypes. In contrast, titers from secondary DENV exposures (n = 628) demonstrated high titers to exposure and non-exposure serotypes. Additionally, PRNT titers from different strains within a serotype varied substantially. A pooled analysis of 1,689 titers demonstrated strain choice accounted for 8.04% (90% credible interval [CrI]: 3.05%, 15.7%) of between-titer variation after adjusting for secondary exposure, time since DENV exposure, vaccination and neutralization percentage. Differences between articles (a proxy for inter-laboratory differences) DZNeP accounted for 50.7% (90% CrI: 30.8%, 71.6%) of between-titer variance.\n\nConclusions: As promising vaccine

candidates arise, the lack of standardized assays among diagnostic and research laboratories make unbiased inferences about vaccine-induced protection difficult. Clearly defined, widely accessible reference reagents, proficiency testing or algorithms to adjust for protocol differences would be a useful first step in improving dengue PRNT comparability and quality assurance.”
“Recently, it was reported that remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome could be complicated with solid tumors. In a retrospective, multicenter

study between October, 2003 and September, 2010, we investigated the characteristics of patients with paraneoplastic RS3PE syndrome who fulfilled following criteria: (1) bilateral pitting edema of hands or feet or both, (2) sudden onset of polyarthritis, and (3) age > 50 years, (4) seronegativity for rheumatoid factor (RF). A total of 33 cases fulfilled the above criteria. Eight patients (seven men and one woman) developed cancer within 2 years of RS3PE syndrome onset. There was no significant difference between the neoplastic and nonneoplastic groups in the proportions of patients with fever, symmetrical polyarthritis, pitting edema, and good response to corticosteroids. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) level (median 437.3 ng/ml) in the paraneoplastic RS3PE patients was significantly higher than that in patients without neoplasia (median 114.7 ng/ml) (p < 0.05).


To examine the number, type, and severity


To examine the number, type, and severity of functional impairments and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with functional impairment across patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and those with mild AD.\n\nDesign: Study using baseline data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.\n\nSetting: Multiple research sites in the United States and Canada.\n\nPatients: Samples included 229 control individuals, 394 patients with aMCI, and 193 patients with AD.\n\nMain Outcome Measure: The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function.\n\nResults: Informant-reported DMH1 datasheet FAQ deficits were common in patients with aMCI (72.3%) and AD (97.4%) but were rarely self-reported by controls (7.9%). The average severity per FAQ deficit did not differ between patients with aMCI and controls; both were less impaired than patients with AD (P<.001). Two FAQ items (remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications and assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers) were specific (specificity estimate, 0.95) Alvespimycin in differentiating the control group from the combined aMCI and AD groups (only 34.0% of patients with aMCI and 3.6% of patients with AD had no difficulty

with these 2 items). The severity of FAQ deficits in the combined aMCI and AD group was associated with worse Trail Making Test, Momelotinib mw part A scores and smaller hippocampal volumes (P<.001 for both). Within the aMCI group, functionally intact individuals had greater hippocampal

volumes and better Auditory Verbal Learning Test 30-minute delay and Trail Making Test, part A (P<.001 for each) scores compared with individuals with moderate or severe FAQ deficits. Patients with a high number of deficits were more likely to express the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele (63.8%) compared with patients with no (46.8%) or few (48.4%) functional deficits.\n\nConclusions: Mild IADL deficits are common in individuals with aMCI and should be incorporated into MCI criteria. Two IADLs-remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications and assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers-appear to be characteristic of clinically significant cognitive impairment. In patients with aMCI, impairment in memory and processing speed and greater medial temporal atrophy were associated with greater IADL deficits.”
“Objective: To compare patient-reported and observer-rated shared decision making (SDM) use for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and ‘evaluate patient, physician and patient-reported relational communication factors associated with patient-reported use of shared CRC screening decisions.

The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consu

The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling

relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving ZD1839 molecular weight energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation

in fluctuating aquatic environments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2142-2147. (C) 2011 SETAC”
“H-1 spin-lattice relaxation rates in glycerol solutions of selected nitroxide radicals at temperatures between 200 K and 400 K were measured at 15 MHz and 25 MHz. The frequency and temperature conditions were chosen in such a way that the relaxation rates go through selleck products their maximum values and are affected by neither the electron spin relaxation nor the electron-nitrogen nucleus hyperfine coupling, so that the focus could be put on the mechanisms of motion. By comparison with H-1 spin-lattice relaxation results for pure glycerol, it has been demonstrated that the inter-molecular electron spin-proton spin dipole-dipole 3-MA PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor interactions are affected not only by relative translational motion of the solvent and solute molecules, but also by their rotational dynamics as the interacting spins are displaced from the molecular centers; the eccentricity effects are usually not taken into account. The H-1 relaxation data have been decomposed into translational and rotational contributions and their relative importance as a function of frequency and temperature discussed in detail.

It has been demonstrated that neglecting the rotational effects on the inter-molecular interactions leads to non-realistic conclusions regarding the translational dynamics of the paramagnetic molecules. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Purpose of review\n\nTo critically appraise evidence on probiotic use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in children and adults.\n\nRecent findings\n\nSeveral randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggested that probiotics are effective in primary and secondary prevention of gastroenteritis and its treatment. Selected Lactobacillus strains had a modest, although significant effect in primary prevention. Saccharomyces boulardii was effective in antibiotic-associated and in Clostridium difficile diarrhea.