In vivo translational and clinical studies that utilized double b

In vivo translational and clinical studies that utilized double biphasic voltage pulses to the right ventricular aspect of the interventricular septum have demonstrated positive global effects on cardiac reverse remodelling and contractility. Longterm application of CCM seems to improve patients’ exercise tolerance and quality of life. These benefits are apparently accomplished with an

acceptable safety profile; however, to date, no data have demonstrated reductions in hospitalizations for heart failure or mortality. CCM is currently available in Europe and ongoing studies are Selleckchem LY2090314 attempting to identify the ideal target population and accumulate additional outcome data.”
“Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels are frequently elevated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study investigated whether the baseline NT-proBNP level on admission can predict short-term mortality after ischemic stroke.

Methods: One hundred patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent thorough clinical and laboratory evaluation, including serum NT-proBNP measurement.

Results: A total of 7% of patients died within 1 week after stroke onset. The NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher among the patients who died compared to NT-proBNP levels in the survivors (P=.002). The optimal NT-proBNP cut-off point for predicting mortality was 1330 pg/mL. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that NT-proBNP concentration was an independent predictor of short-term post-stroke mortality (P=.03).

Conclusion: Increased NT-proBNP level was significantly and independently correlated

with short-term Selleck LY3039478 mortality in patients after ischemic stroke.”
“Detection of the sentinel lymph node has become a mainstay of certain surgical interventions for cancer. In this sense, physiological and biochemical properties of the molecules employed for early detection of such metastasis have become relevant in many specialties. Traditionally the main characteristics considered for such radiopharmaceuticals are particle size and surface features. In addition, design of radiolabeled molecules has to take in account anatomy of the vascular lymphatic epithelium and its interaction with such agents. The aim is to create more specific and effective drugs, thus precisely shaping and eventually remodelling the surgical strategy for a given patient. Advances in diagnostic imaging open perspectives for additional categories of agents, endowed with different physico-chemical features as required by positron-emission tomography and other sophisticated procedures. This review covers the molecules used in sentinel node finding as well as some related topics, which can help to understand their action mechanism and failures.”
“One characteristic abnormality of lesional skin in psoriasis is the excessive production of antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs).

“SETTING: The city of Hermosillo, in Northwest Mexico, has

“SETTING: The city of Hermosillo, in Northwest Mexico, has a higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB) than the national average.

However, the intra-urban TB distribution, which could limit the effectiveness of preventive strategies and control, is unknown.

METHODS: Using geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis, we characterized the geographical distribution of TB by basic geostatistical area (BGA), and compared it with a social deprivation index. Univariate and bivariate techniques were used to detect STI571 in vitro risk areas.

RESULTS: Globally, TB in the city of Hermosillo is not spatially auto-correlated, but local clusters with high incidence and mortality rates were identified in the northwest, central-east and southwest sections of the city. BGAs with high social deprivation had an excess risk of TB.

DISCUSSION: GIS and spatial analysis are useful tools to detect high TB risk areas in the city of Hermosillo. Such areas may be vulnerable due to low socio-economic status. The study of small geographical areas in urban settings similar to Hermosillo could indicate the best course of action to be taken for TB prevention and control.”
“Mutilating-type rheumatoid arthritis, the most aggressive

type of rheumatoid arthritis, is frequently associated with destructive cervical involvement, both at the high-cervical and subaxial levels, causing significant neurological deficit, and their natural course of the disease and the survival are discouraging. For such cases, we have been actively performing occipito-thoracic fusion since 1991. Although medical treatment for rheumatoid patients has represented a marked improvement, it could not treat all of these patients because of several reasons. Therefore, it is still important to evaluate the past treatment results.

We investigated the neurological

improvement and prognosis in 51 mutilating-type rheumatoid arthritis patients who underwent occipito-thoracic fusion between 1991 and 2010. The neurological status was evaluated using modified Ranawat classification; class IIIB was subdivided into IIIBa (able to sit upright) and IIIBb (bedridden).

The selleckchem preoperative neurologic status was IIIBa in 19 patients and IIIBb in 17 patients. 15 of the 19 patients with class IIIBa improved to being able to walk (79 %), whereas only 3 of the 17 patients with class IIIBb improved to being able to walk (18 %) after surgery. Of the 51 patients, 28 died during follow-up; the mean age at death was 67.2 years. The postoperative 5- and 10-year survival rates were 60.3 and 26.4 %, respectively.

The neurological improvement and prognosis after surgery was poorer in class IIIBb patients than in the other patient groups. Occipito-thoracic fusion can improve the neurological symptoms and prognosis. However, early surgical intervention is recommended, before a patient becomes bedridden (class IIIBb).

The conversion

in each batch was above 95% and the enzyma

The conversion

in each batch was above 95% and the enzymatic activity still remained quite high after five batches of biotransformation.

CONCLUSION: The results showed that performing the conversion by this method shortened the reaction time and increased the productivity, thus demonstrating the great potential of the method for the dehydrogenation of 11 alpha-hydroxy-16 alpha,17-epoxyprogesterone. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Contents To achieve optimal reproductive performance in pig herds, sows need to become pregnant as soon as possible after weaning. The aim of this study was to investigate herd and management factors associated with reproductive GSK1210151A order performance of sows after weaning. A questionnaire pertaining to sow management at weaning and herd reproductive data were collected from 76 randomly selected commercial pig herds in Belgium. Associations between the herd factors and two reproductive parameters after weaning (weaning-to-oestrous interval: WEI and percentage of repeat breeders: RB) were analysed using general linear mixed models. A separated feeding strategy of breeding gilts from 60kg onwards was significantly

associated with a shorter WEI (5.54 vs 7.28days; p=0.040). Factors significantly associated with a lower percentage of RB were housing the newly weaned sows separated from the gestating sows (7% vs 12%; p=0.003), using semen<4days after collection selleck screening library (79 vs 14%; p=0.014) and stimulating oestrus twice a day (8 vs 11%; p=0.025). In conclusion, some management practices, such as feeding strategy of breeding gilts, housing conditions of sows, method of oestrous stimulation and storage duration of semen, have an influence on the outcome of reproductive parameters such as weaning-to-oestrous interval learn more and percentage of repeat breeders. These practices can be implemented rather easily by pig producers and may consequently lead to improvements of reproductive performance of sows after weaning.”
“OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy of ezetimibe and atorvastatin in patients with high LDL cholesterol that

had not reached the lipid management target value with 10 mg atorvastatin monotherapy, against increasing the dose to 20 mg atorvastatin or switching to 2.5 mg rosuvastatin.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, 3-parallel-group comparison trial at 23 community hospitals and clinics in Japan (enrollment period March 2009 to May 2010) in 125 patients with high LDL cholesterol.

INTERVENTIONS: A total of 125 Japanese patients with high LDL cholesterol level were randomized to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: the ezetimibe (10 mg/d) and atorvastatin (10 mg/d) group, the atorvastatin (20 mg/d) group, or the rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/d) group for 12 weeks after treatment with 10 mg atorvastatin alone for 4 weeks.

Both of the two phases have

Both of the two phases have Daporinad anisotropic compressibility: the orthorhombic phase exhibits an anomalous expansion under compression along a-axis and is more compressive along b-axis than c-axis; the tetragonal phase is more compressive along

the interlayer direction than the intralayer directions. The bulk moduli of the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases are determined to be K-OT – 39 +/- 5 GPa with K-OT’ – 10 +/- 7 and K-OT 57 +/- 2 GPa with K-OT’ – 6.6 +/- 0.2, respectively. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3610501]“
“Studies investigating differences in regional brain volumes in children born preterm and term during early childhood are limited. Neuroimaging could help understand patterns of deficit in children born preterm and target areas of development associated with these regions. The goal of this study was to identify differences in regional brain volume at 2 different ages using magnetic resonance imaging in preterm and term children. Magnetic resonance imaging and developmental testing occurred in children 18 to 22 months old (16 preterm and 10 term children) and 36 to 47 month old (12 preterm and 10 term children). There were significant differences between the 4 groups in the parietal

region, cerebral white matter, third ventricle, and lateral Selleckchem PKC412 ventricle. Correlations between regional cerebral volume and developmental testing were explored for the third and lateral ventricles. Our findings indicate that in young children differences in regional cerebral volume are due to both maturation and prematurity.”
“Most plants form root symbioses with

arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which provide them with phosphate and other nutrients. High soil phosphate levels are known to affect AM symbiosis negatively, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. This report describes experimental conditions which triggered a novel mycorrhizal phenotype under high phosphate supply: the interaction between pea and two different AM fungi was almost completely abolished at a very early stage, prior to the formation of hyphopodia. As demonstrated by split-root experiments, down-regulation of AM symbiosis occurred at least partly in response to plant-derived signals. Early signalling events were examined with a focus on strigolactones, AL3818 compounds which stimulate pre-symbiotic fungal growth and metabolism. Strigolactones were also recently identified as novel plant hormones contributing to the control of shoot branching. Root exudates of plants grown under high phosphate lost their ability to stimulate AM fungi and lacked strigolactones. In addition, a systemic down-regulation of strigolactone release by high phosphate supply was demonstrated using split-root systems. Nevertheless, supplementation with exogenous strigolactones failed to restore root colonization under high phosphate.

1 +/- 4 3% vs 10 3 +/- 4 9% (p<0 05), and nitrate-mediated di

1 +/- 4.3% vs. 10.3 +/- 4.9% (p<0.05), and nitrate-mediated dilatation (NMD) was markedly lower, 21.7 +/- 6.6% vs. 31.4 +/- 5.7% (p<0.001).

Lumen diameter, intima-media thickness and distensibility were similar in DM and C. Insulin-like Rabusertib clinical trial growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in DM than C, 231 +/- 65 vs. 349 +/- 68 ng/ml (p<0.001). Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1C)) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) were independent predictors of the reduced NMD in the DM.

Brachial artery responsiveness to an exogenous donor of nitric oxide (NO) was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetic women despite only limited reduction in endothelium-dependent dilatation. The negative association between NMD and HbA(1C) suggests that long-term hyperglycaemia impairs vascular smooth muscle cell function in DM.”
“To study the effects of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on CYP450 activities in rats, three probe drugs (phenacetin, tolbutamide and omeprazole) were simultaneously given to rats which were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 8 each): Control-group and MMA-group. In Control-group, castor oil was administered to animals

orally; in MMA-group, rats were given 2.80 MMA orally. The plasma concentrations of three probes were measured by LC-MS after administration for 14 consecutive days. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The result showed there was obvious difference in plasma concentrations and corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters of phenacetin, tolbutamide and

Selleckchem MI-503 omeprazole between two groups. In MMA-group, the AUC and Cmax of three probe drugs decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the CI and VI increased significantly (P < 0.01). As for t1/2, no influences were observed in phenacetin and omeprazole, but the t(1/2) of tolbutamide increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MMA can induce the activity of CYP1A2 and CYP2C11 of rats significantly after intragastric administration for PD-1/PD-L1 activation 14 days.”
“The purpose of the present study was to design mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres containing amoxicillin. Chitosan microspheres with a small particle size and good sphericity were prepared by a spray-drying method followed by chemical treatment with a chemical crosslinking agent (glutaraldehyde). Parameters affecting the crosslinking extent of the crosslinking time and the concentration of the crosslinker agent. Crosslinked spray-dried chitosan microspheres were analyzed for their morphological aspects, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, swelling percent and in vitro drug release. Batch M4 with a drug polymer ratio of 1: 2, dissolved in minimum concentration of acetic acid solution treated with glutraldehyde, was found to be optimal giving controlled drug release for 10 h. It was found that both the increase of glutaraldehyde concentration and crosslinking duration decreased the swelling capacity of chitosan microspheres.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3592192]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3592192]“
“We investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) on cultured human osteoblastic (HOB) cells by evaluating cell adhesion, proliferation, and cytotoxicity.

(3)H-Thymidine-labeled HOB cells were incubated in culture medium supplemented or not with 4%, 6%, 8%, or 10% CA for 1 minute. After incubation, cell morphology was evaluated by Nomarski interferential light microscopy, cell proliferation was accessed by measurements of (3)H-thymidine associated to the cells, and cell lysis was monitored by measuring the amount of (3)H-thymidine released by cells. We observed that most of the CA-treated cells presented numerous atypical vacuoles, and such cells were also highly polymorphic, exhibiting round-shaped cells. Nonetheless, CA at all concentrations assayed did not yield cytotoxicity as measured selleck chemicals llc by (3)H-containing DNA release, although significant decrease in cell proliferation find more was observed (P > .05). Furthermore, cells which were treated with CA at the lowest concentration assayed (4%) restored

normal proliferation rates 3 days after treatment. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 110: 665-669)”
“Appearance quality of rice grains is a major problem for rice production in many areas of the world. We conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGWC), which is a determining factor for appearance quality; it strongly affects milling, eating and cooking quality. An F-8 recombinant inbred line population, which consists of 261 lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari (Japonica) and C602 (Japonica), was used for QTL mapping. Three QTLs related to PGWC were detected on chromosomes 5, 8 and 10, together explaining 50.8% of the genetic

variation. The ‘Koshihikari’ alleles qJPGC-5, qJPGC-8 and the ‘C602′ alleles at qJPGC-10 were associated with reduced PGWC. The QTL contributions to phenotypic variance were 18.2, 9.6 and 25%, respectively. These QTL markers for PGWC could be used for developing improved varieties.”
“An enhanced approach for transferring quantum state between quantum nodes is proposed wherein photons serve as the information carrier. Each node consists of a Rubidium ((87)Rb) atom trapped inside a two-mode optical cavity. The approach is based on cavity quantum Selleckchem SB203580 electrodynamics (QED) wherein a system of lasers is applied on the atom in order to generate photon through Raman transition. Logic states ’0′ and ’1′ are represented by two subspaces of the hyperfine energy levels with magnetic sub-levels of (87)Rb atom. A static magnetic field is applied upon the atoms so that the hyperfine states of (87)Rb atom are split into the magnetic sub-levels (due to Zeeman effect). Depending on the logic state of the transmit node, a right-or left-circularly polarized photon with designated frequency is produced through a cavity assisted Raman process.

4:1), and pharmacy services ($1258 vs $82, ratio = 15:1) Childre

4:1), and pharmacy services ($1258 vs $82, ratio = 15:1). Children with pervasive developmental disorders covered by Medicaid

have increased costs of health care.”
“Background. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) components in an urban Mexican sample. Methods. A total of 854 subjects see more were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure measurements, clinical data, and overnight fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects. Results. In accordance with definitions by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the prevalence of MS among participants was 59.7 and 68.7%, respectively. The prevalence of MS was higher in women and in individuals older than 45 years of age. More than 40% of the subjects fulfilled four criterions

of MS according to both definitions. Conclusions. There was a high prevalence of MS components in an urban Mexican sample. Therefore, strong strategies had to be developed for early detection of MS and its components to prevent Galardin price DMT2 and atherothrombotic complications in these patients.”
“Objective: There is little information comparing the potential risk of cancer across conventional and biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methotrexate has not been the focus of most contemporary pharmacoepidemiologic studies of cancer.

Methods: We conducted a comparative effectiveness study with cancer as the outcome. A large observational cohort of RA was followed up from 2001 to 2010. Reports of any cancer prompted a confirmation process that included adjudication of the primary cancer records. We used a propensity score (PS) with relevant covariates and cohort trimming

to improve the balance between DMARD cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression models were constructed to 3 MA estimate the risk of cancer with various DMARDs, all compared with methotrexate.

Results: We identified 6806 DMARD courses for analysis (1566 methotrexate; 904 nbDMARDs; 3761 TNF antagonists; 408 abatacept; and 167 rituximab). Non-biologic DMARDs (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05-0.65) and TNF antagonists (HR 0.29, 95% CI 0.05-0.65) were associated with a reduced adjusted risk of cancer compared with methotrexate. Abatacept (HR 1.55, 95% CI 0.40-5.97) and rituximab (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.07-2.60) were similar in risk of cancer with methotrexate. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. After controlling for DMARD exposures, risk factors for cancer included male gender, age, and alcohol consumption.

Conclusions: Cancer risk was elevated for methotrexate users compared with nbDMARDs and TNF antagonists. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

We treated it with a total excision with wide margins and neck di

We treated it with a total excision with wide margins and neck dissection. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period of 5 years up until now. We present a case of an unusually huge CEPA in the oral cavity.”
“Background and Purpose: Because of the limited working space available during retroperitoneal laparoscopic FR900506 radical

nephrectomy (LRN), the body habitus of the patient is likely to affect the risk of operative difficulties. This study sought to determine whether anthropometric measurements based on CT and abdominal radiography could be used to predict operative difficulties during retroperitoneal LRN.

Patients and Methods: Between August 2004 and January 2012, 96 consecutive patients with preoperative Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor CT and abdominal radiography examinations underwent retroperitoneal LRN for a T-1 or T-2 stage renal tumor at our institution. The association between anthropometric measurements and demographics of patients and operative duration, estimated blood loss (EBL), and perioperative complications were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed, and P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Anterior perirenal fat distance (P = 0.016) and distance from the 12th rib to the iliac crest (P = 0.038) were independently associated with operative duration.

Only anterior perirenal fat distance (P = 0.001) was independently associated with EBL. No intraoperative complications and reoperations occurred. The occurrence or severity of postoperative complications was not significantly associated with anthropometric measurements. Body mass index >= 25.0 kg/m(2) was not significantly associated with operative difficulties.

Conclusion: The anterior perirenal fat distance and the distance from the 12th rib to the iliac crest can be used to predict operative difficulties during retroperitoneal LRN.”
“Coffee is the beverage consumed during pregnancy that is most commonly S3I-201 solubility dmso associated with adversely affecting the developing fetoplacental unit. Since placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD-2) is an important

determinant for maintenance of fetal glucocorticoid levels during pregnancy, we investigated the effect of coffee on 11 beta-HSD-2 expression in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, JEG-3. Addition of coffee to the culture medium of JEG-3 cells increased 11 beta-HSD-2 gene expression after 24 hr in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular 11 beta-HSD-2 activity, which was calculated by the amount of cortisol that was converted to cortisone in the culture medium, also increased in the coffee-treated JEG-3 cells. None of the major constituents of coffee, such as caffeine, caffeic acid or chlorogenic acid, showed any ability to induce 11 beta-HSD-2 gene expression. The 11 beta-HSD-2-inducing activity in coffee was extractable with ethyl acetate.

“Questions under study: To compare the incidence of pre-pr

“Questions under study: To compare the incidence of pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and difference in weight gain during pregnancy in the years 1986 and 2004, in women delivered at the maternity unit of our hospital.

Methods: Retrospective study. Maternity INCB28060 records of patients delivered in the years 1986 and 2004 were compared.

Data extraction included booking weight, height, weight gain, birth weight as well as information on mode of delivery and gestational age at delivery.

Results: During the year 1986 and 2004 a total of 690 and 668 patients respectively were included in the analysis. The pre-pregnancy BMI >= 25 doubled over the 18-year period (from 15.9 to 30.1%). In 1986 only 2.6% of all pregnant women gained more than 20 kg, while in 2004 14.2% (p < 0.0001) did so. The caesarean section rate was significantly higher in 2004 than 18 years earlier (28.3 and 9.3%, p <0.0001).

Conclusions: We found a significant increase

in all parameters between these two groups. Pregnant women are today heavier at the booking visit, are more overweight, and gain more weight during pregnancy. A similar trend is seen in the newborn babies, who have a higher birth weight than those born 18 years ago.”
“P>Although defense responses mediated by the plant oxylipin jasmonic acid (JA) are often necessary for resistance against pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles, in this report we demonstrate that jasmonate signaling mediated through COI1 in Arabidopsis thaliana is responsible for susceptibility LY3023414 research buy to wilt disease caused by the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Despite compromised JA-dependent defense responses, the JA perception mutant coronatine insensitive 1 (coi1), but not JA biosynthesis mutants,

exhibited a high level of resistance to wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum. This response was independent from salicylic acid-dependent selleck chemicals defenses, as coi1/NahG plants showed similar disease resistance to coi1 plants. Inoculation of reciprocal grafts made between coi1 and wild-type plants revealed that coi1-mediated resistance occurred primarily through the coi1 rootstock tissues. Furthermore, microscopy and quantification of fungal DNA during infection indicated that coi1-mediated resistance was not associated with reduced fungal penetration and colonization until a late stage of infection, when leaf necrosis was highly developed in wild-type plants. In contrast to wild-type leaves, coi1 leaves showed no necrosis following the application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate, and showed reduced expression of senescence-associated genes during disease development, suggesting that coi1 resistance is most likely achieved through the inhibition of F. oxysporum-incited lesion development and plant senescence. Together, our results indicate that F.

Probably, due to the inbreeding nature of beans, the heterozygosi

Probably, due to the inbreeding nature of beans, the heterozygosity observed within genotypes was low at most of the SSR loci. The UPGMA dendrogram constructed based on the SSR data yielded two major clusters. The overall genetic distance was around 98%, among the genotypes. This information can be used to help select Turkish green bean lines.”
“Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), rare primitive cells capable of reconstituting all blood cell lineages, are the only stem cells currently routinely used for therapeutic purposes. Clinical experience has shown that HSC number is an important limiting factor in treatment success. Strategies to expand HSCs are

of great clinical appeal, as they would improve therapeutic use of these cells in stem cell BMS-777607 cell line transplantation and in conditions of bone marrow failure. The microenvironment in which HSCs reside, known as the niche, has long been considered a critical regulator of HSCs. Data accumulated over the past decade strongly confirm STA-9090 purchase the importance of the niche in HSC behavior. A number of niche components as well as signaling pathways, such as Notch, have been implicated in the interaction of the microenvironment with HSCs and continue to be genetically evaluated in the hope of defining the critical

elements that are required and which, if modified, can initiate HSC behaviors. In this review, we highlight the known characteristics of HSCs, challenges in their expansion, the niche phenomenon, and explain why niche stimulated HSC expansion is of utmost interest in the field, while beginning to bring to the fore potential caveats of niche manipulation. Lastly, the potential pitfalls

of avoiding malignancy and controlling self-renewal versus differentiation will be briefly reviewed.”
“Study Design. An anatomic study of lumbar facet anatomy for transfacet fixation.

Objective. Describe the ideal starting point and trajectory for percutaneous transfacet fixation.

Summary of Background Data. Percutaneous transfacet AZD6738 fixation is gaining popularity for posterior stabilization after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Despite biomechanical and clinical studies, there are no anatomic guidelines for safe placement of percuatenous transfacet screws.

Methods. Eighty L3-S1 facet joints from embalmed cadaveric spines were analyzed. Linear and angular measurements of the facets were recorded. Under direct visualization, the segments were pinned with an ipsilateral transfacet technique. The degrees of angulation in the sagittal and axial plane were recorded. The distances of the starting point relative to landmarks of the superior body were measured. Under fluoroscopy, radiographic parameters for ideal visualization of the pin and pin ending points were determined.

Results. Inferior and superior facet heights ranged from 15.7 to 17.5 mm at all levels. The percentage of inferior facet extending below the L3 and L4 end plates was 84% and 86% respectively and decreased at L5 to 72%.