The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) has a critical role in

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) has a critical role in regulating ethanol consumption and the response to ethanol withdrawal. We previously demonstrated that rat CeA GABAergic transmission is enhanced by acute and chronic ethanol treatment. Here, we used quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect Ghsr mRNA in the CeA and performed electrophysiological recordings to measure ghrelin effects on GABA transmission in this brain region. Furthermore, we examined whether acute or chronic ethanol treatment would alter these electrophysiological

effects. Our qRT-PCR studies show the presence of Ghsr mRNA in the CeA. In naive animals, superfusion of ghrelin increased the amplitude of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Coapplication of ethanol further increased GSK621 the ghrelin-induced enhancement of IPSP amplitude, but to a lesser extent than ethanol alone. When applied alone, ethanol significantly increased IPSP amplitude, but this effect was attenuated by the application of ghrelin. In neurons

from chronic ethanol-treated (CET) animals, the magnitude of ghrelin-induced increases in IPSP amplitude Blasticidin S ic50 was not significantly different from that in naive animals, but the ethanol-induced increase in amplitude was abolished. Superfusion of the GHS-RIA antagonists D-Lys3-GHRP-6 and JMV 3002 decreased evoked IPSP and mIPSC frequency, revealing tonic ghrelin activity in the CeA. D-Lys3-GHRP-6 and JMV 3002 also blocked ghrelin-induced increases in GABAergic responses. Furthermore, D-Lys3-GHRP-6 did not affect ethanol-induced increases EPZ015666 in IPSP amplitude. These studies implicate a potential role for the ghrelin system in regulating GABAergic transmission and a complex interaction with ethanol at CeA GABAergic synapses. Neuropsychopharmacology (2013) 38, 364-375; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.190; published online 12 September 2012″
“The advent

of antibody-based cancer therapeutics has led to the concomitant rise in the development of companion diagnostics for these therapies, particularly nuclear imaging agents. A number of radioisotopes have been employed for antibody-based PET and SPECT imaging, notably Cu-64, I-124, In-111, and Tc-99m: in recent years. however, the field has increasingly focused on Zr-89, a radiometal with near ideal physical and chemical properties for immunoPET imaging. In the review at hand, we seek to provide a comprehensive portrait of the current state of Zr-89 radiochemical and imaging research, including work into the production and purification of the isotope, the synthesis of new chelators, the development of new bioconjugation strategies, the creation of novel Zr-89-based agents for preclinical imaging studies, and the translation of Zr-89-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to the clinic.

Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffecti

Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent

protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“There is considerable interest in histamine H3 receptors as emerging pharmaceutical targets recently. Diabetic rats display increased pain responses following the injection of formalin into the paw SBI-0206965 cell line suggesting the presence of hyperalgesia. In this study, the efficacy of systemic administration of selective H3 receptor agonist, immepip (1, 5 and 30 mg/kg), and antagonist, thioperamide (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg), was investigated on hyperalgesia during the formalin test in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Nociceptive testing was performed in male adult Wistar rats 4 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia. At the end of the experiment, all rats were weighed and then underwent plasma glucose measurement. Diabetes caused significant hyperalgesia during both phases of the formalin test. 5 and 30 mg/kg doses of immepip

reversed chemical hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The 1 mg dose VE-821 order of immepip did not alter pain behaviors in control and diabetic groups compared to the respective control ones. lmmepip at any doses used in this study did not affect the body weight and plasma glucose levels

of treated animals. Thioperamide alone at any doses used had no effect on formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in the control and diabetic rats.

The results indicated the efficacy of immepip systemic administration in an experimental model of diabetic hyperalgesia. It may also suggest it as a promising tool for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: There has been a rapid increase in the number of endovascular procedures performed for peripheral artery disease, and especially aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AIOD). Results from single-center reports suggest a benefit for endovascular procedures; however, these benefits may not reflect general practice. We used a population-based Pritelivir supplier analysis to determine predictors of clinical and economic outcomes following open and endovascular procedures for inpatients with AIOD.

Methods: All patients with MOD who underwent open and endovascular procedures in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2004 to 2007, were identified. Independent patient- and provider-related characteristics were analyzed. Clinical outcomes included complications and mortality; economic outcomes included length of stay (LOS) and cost (2007 dollars). Outcomes were compared using)(chi(2), ANOVA, and multivariate regression analysis.

Results: Four thousand, one hundred nineteen patients with MOD were identified. Endovascular procedures increased by 18%.

(Delta Psi m) In addition, S-aspirin also prevented A beta-induc

(Delta Psi m). In addition, S-aspirin also prevented A beta-induced activation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, our results suggest that S-aspirin may protect microglial injury via inhibition of inflammation, prevention of mitochondria

function, and stimulation of cell growth via stimulating p38-MAPK pathway. Our study may suggest that S-aspirin may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: High ankle-brachial index (ABI) (>1.40) is associated with poor cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognosis. Concomittant peripheral artery disease (PAD) is frequent, although undetectable with the ABI in this situation. We assessed the prognostic value U0126 of a high ABI according to the coexistence of occlusive PAD in diabetics.

Methods: In this retrospective longitudinal study, we reviewed the data of 403 consecutive diabetic patients (hospitalized in tertiary care teaching hospital) who had a Doppler assessment of their lower limbs between 1999 and 2000. They

were classified as “”normal”" when Doppler waveform patterns (DWP) were normal and ABI within the 0.91 to 1.39 range, “”occlusive-PAD (O-PAD)”" when ABI <= 0.90, or in case of abnormal DWP with normal ABI, “”isolated medial calcinosis (IMC)”" if ABI >= 1.40 with normal DWP, and “”mixed disease (MD)”" when ABI >= 1.40 with abnormal DWP. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any of the following events: death, stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and acute coronary syndrome.

Results: The patients (65.6 +/- 13.2 years, 54.6% females) were classified as normal (14.4%), O-PAD (48.4%), IMC (16.4%), and MD (20.8%). During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, the event-free survival curves of O-PAD and MD groups showed equally poorer

prognosis than the IMC and normal groups. Adjusted for age, sex, diabetes type and duration, traditional for CVD risk factors, chronic kidney disease, CVD history and treatments, the presence of occlusive disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.21, 1.16-4.22, P = .016), but not medial calcinosis, was significantly associated with the primary outcome.

Conclusions: In diabetics with ABI >1.40, only those with concommittant occlusive PAD have poorer prognosis. (J Vasc Surg 2011;53:984-91.)”
“Acid-sensing ion channel 1b (ASIC1b) is a proton-gated Na(+) channel mostly expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. To date, the functional significance of ASIC1b in these cells is unclear due to the lack of a specific inhibitor/blocker. A better understanding of the regulation of ASIC1b may provide a clue for future investigation of its functional importance. One important regulator of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) is zinc. In this study, we examined the detailed zinc inhibition of ASIC1b currents and specific amino acid(s) involved in the inhibition.

BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and t

BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue Tubastatin A price levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (CD) 15, and postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissues and then decreased from PNDs 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to

both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on CD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PNDs 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5-17 in order to evaluate the

neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle selleck chemicals control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Hyperlipidemia increases the level of blood plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) that is responsible for regulating fibrinolysis by inhibiting both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). While this fibrinolytic

pathway is well known, the role of PAI-1 in venous thrombosis (VT) under hyperlipidemic conditions has not been fully established. We sought to determine the effects of PAI-1 in an in vivo see more hyperlipidemic model of VT.

Methods: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice (ApoE-/-) having hyperlipidemia, and PAI-1 gene-deleted (PAI-1-/-) mice were used in this study. Inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation below the level of the renal veins was performed to create a stasis VT. Endpoints included measuring acute thrombosis (day 2) and chronic thrombosis (days 6 and 14). At euthanasia, blood samples were collected for plasmin and PAI-1 activity. In addition, the IVC and its thrombus were evaluated for thrombus weight (TW), u-PA activity, and differential leukocyte count while the vein wall only was analyzed for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9.

At 24 h after CLP, however, c-fos expression was strongly decreas

At 24 h after CLP, however, c-fos expression was strongly decreased in all these nuclei (P < 0.05), except for the VLM. Aminoguanidine reduced c-fos expression in the AP and NTS at 6 h after CLR but showed an opposite effect at 24 h, with an increase in the AP, NTS, and also in the VLM. No such effect was observed

in the LC and PB at 6 or 24 h. In all control animals, c-fos expression was minimal or absent. We conclude that in the early phase of sepsis iNOS-derived NO may be partially responsible for the activation of brain structures related to cardiovascular regulation. During the late phase, however, this activation is reduced or abolished. (C) 2009 Elsevier Saracatinib in vitro Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Exposure to Escherichia coli O157:H7 may result in subclinical kidney injury manifesting as hypertension during pregnancy. We evaluated the risk of pregnancy-related hypertension (PRH) among previously healthy females from the Walkerton Health Study, Canada (2002-6), who conceived within five years of exposure to bacteria-contaminated drinking water. Ontario Ministry of Health Antenatal forms were used to determine outcomes and risk factors. PRH was defined as any systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP) >= 140 mm Hg and >= 90 mm Hg, respectively. Chronic and gestational hypertension were defined, respectively, as elevated

BP observed prior to or at >= 20 weeks gestation. Risk of PRH was evaluated using a modified Poisson regression model that controlled for known risk factors.

Of 148 eligible pregnancies, antenatal audits with blood pressure data were available Selleckchem Adriamycin for 135. PRH was detected in 20.7% pregnancies, of which 6.7% were chronic hypertension during and 14.1% gestational hypertension. Although nonsignificant, we observed a consistent trend toward higher rates of PRH and mean arterial pressure, particularly prior to 20 weeks gestation, among women who reported symptomatic gastroenteritis compared to asymptomatic women. BP should be monitored closely in women after exposure to contaminated water.”
“Previous studies have shown that acute stress stimulates colonic motor function via a central corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in rodents. However, little is known whether colonic motility is altered following chronic stress. We studied the changes of colonic motor function in response to chronic stress or daily administration of CRF in rats. Rats were subjected to restraint stress for 90 min for 5 consecutive days (chronic stress). Another group of rats received intracisternal (IC)-injection of CRF (1 mu g) for 5 consecutive days. At the 1 st day of restraint stress, calculated motility index was significantly increased by over 200% of basal in the proximal and distal colon. Similar results were obtained in response to the 2nd and 3rd day of restraint stress.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“When w

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“When we observe object-directed actions such as grasping, we make predictive eye movements. However, eye movements are reactive when observing similar actions without objects. This reactivity may reflect a lack of attribution LEE011 in vivo of intention to observed actors when they perform actions without goals’. Alternatively, it may simply signal that there is no cue present that has been predictive of the subsequent trajectory in the observer’s experience. To test this hypothesis, the present study investigated how the time course of eye movements changes as a function of visual experience of predictable, but arbitrary, actions

without objects. Participants observed a point-light display of a model performing sequential finger actions in a serial reaction time task. Eye movements became less reactive across blocks. In addition, participants who exhibited more predictive buy PS-341 eye movements subsequently demonstrated greater learning when required either to execute, or to recognize, the sequence. No measures were influenced by whether participants had been instructed that the observed movements were human or lever generated. The

present data indicate that eye movements when observing actions without objects reflect the extent to which the trajectory can be predicted through experience. The findings are discussed with reference to the implications for the mechanisms supporting perception of actions both with and without objects as well as those mediating inanimate object processing. (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer NU7026 research buy Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Amur virus was recently identified as the causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an Amur virus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Northeastern China. The sequence information provided here is critical for the molecular epidemiology and evolution of Amur virus in China.”

that have investigated whether deficits in social cognition observed in schizophrenia are also present in schizotypal individuals have largely been inconclusive, and none of these studies have examined social interactive behavior. Here, we investigated interactive decision-making behavior in individuals differing in the amount of schizotypal symptoms using tasks derived from Game Theory. In total 1691 undergraduate students were screened with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief version. We selected 69 people distributed across the full schizotypal continuum to participate in Ultimatum and Dictator Games in which they played against human and non-human, computer partners. The results showed that higher levels of schizotypal symptoms, particularly positive and disorganized schizotypy, were related to proposing higher offers to all partners.

The remaining 40 rats (20 male and 20 female rats) constituted th

The remaining 40 rats (20 male and 20 female rats) constituted the study group, and frontal burr holes were performed at the OB level on these rats. OB cauterization was applied to 10 male and 10 female rats (n = 10, 10; study group 1), mechanical OBX was applied to five male

and five female rats (n = 5, 5; study group 2), and no procedure was performed on the remaining 10 rats (n AP26113 = 5, 5). The psychomotor movements; pregnancy rates; and sexual, feeding, maternal, social, and grooming behaviors for both study groups were observed daily for 3 months. Their OBs, olfactory cortices, and habenular complexes were examined using stereological methods. All of the animals in the study groups, especially in the cauterization group, demonstrated anorexia, nutritional disorders, weight loss, psychomotor retardation, sexual aversion, decreased grooming behavior, and reduced social interaction Vorinostat in vivo similar to depression symptoms. As compared to the control group, the pregnancy rates, number of offspring per mother rat, and birth weights in the study groups were lower, whereas the number of stillbirths was higher. Gross anatomical examinations revealed that the OBs of all of the animals in the study groups were atrophied. Histopathological examinations detected prominent neuronal loss due to apoptosis in the habenular structures in the study groups. We detected a relationship

between a decreased healthy neuronal density of Vorasidenib research buy the habenula and depressive symptomatology in rats with OBX. We suggest that olfaction disorders might cause neuropsychiatric disorders by affecting neuronal degeneration in habenular nuclei. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A Salmonella lytic bacteriophage, SS3e, was isolated, and its genome was sequenced completely. This phage is able to lyse not only various Salmonella serovars but also Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens,

indicating a broad host specificity. Genomic sequence analysis of SS3e revealed a linear double-stranded DNA sequence of 40,793 bp harboring 58 open reading frames, which is highly similar to Salmonella phages SETP13 and MB78.”
“The neurotransmitter dopamine has frequently been implicated in reward processing but is also, increasingly, implicated in punishment processing. We have previously shown that both patients with Parkinson’s disease and healthy individuals with low dopamine (DA) synthesis are better at reversal learning based on punishment than reward. Here, we extend these prior findings by examining the effects of artificially reducing DA synthesis in healthy individuals performing this previously employed task.

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we applied the acute tyrosine and phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) procedure to reduce global DA synthesis in 15 female and 14 male subjects. Each subject performed the reward- and punishment-based reversal-learning paradigm.

We aimed to assess the effects on mortality, viral suppression, a

We aimed to assess the effects on mortality, viral suppression, and other health outcomes and quality indicators of the Streamlining Tasks and Roles to Expand Treatment and Care for HIV (STRETCH) programme, Erastin purchase which provides educational outreach training of nurses to initiate and represcribe ART, and to decentralise care.

Methods We undertook a pragmatic, parallel, cluster-randomised trial in South Africa between Jan 28, 2008, and June 30, 2010. We randomly assigned 31 primary-care ART clinics to implement the STRETCH programme (intervention group) or to continue with standard care (control group). The ratio of randomisation depended on how many clinics were in each of nine strata. Two cohorts were

enrolled: eligible patients in cohort Nepicastat nmr 1 were adults (aged >= 16 years) with CD4 counts of 350 cells per mu L or less

who were not receiving ART; those in cohort 2 were adults who had already received ART for at least 6 months and were being treated at enrolment. The primary outcome in cohort 1 was time to death (superiority analysis). The primary outcome in cohort 2 was the proportion with undetectable viral loads (<400 copies per mL) 12 months after enrolment (equivalence analysis, prespecified difference <6%). Patients and clinicians could not be masked to group assignment. The interim analysis was blind, but data analysts were not masked after the database was locked for final analysis. Analyses were done by intention to find more treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN46836853.

Findings 5390 patients in cohort 1 and 3029 in cohort 2 were in the intervention group, and 3862 in cohort 1 and 3202 in cohort 2 were in the control group. Median follow-up was 16.3 months (IQR 12.2-18.0) in cohort 1 and 18.0 months (18.0-18.0) in cohort 2. In cohort 1, 997 (20%) of 4943 patients analysed

in the intervention group and 747 (19%) of 3862 in the control group with known vital status at the end of the trial had died. Time to death did not differ (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.76-1.15). In a preplanned subgroup analysis of patients with baseline CD4 counts of 201-350 cells per mu L, mortality was slightly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (0.73, 0.54-1.00; p=0.052), but it did not diff er between groups in patients with baseline CD4 of 200 cells per mu L or less (0.94, 0.76-1.15; p=0.577). In cohort 2, viral load suppression 12 months after enrolment was equivalent in intervention (2156 [71%] of 3029 patients) and control groups (2230 [70%] of 3202; risk difference 1.1%, 95% CI-2.4 to 4.6).

Interpretation Expansion of primary-care nurses’ roles to include ART initiation and represcription can be done safely, and improve health outcomes and quality of care, but might not reduce time to ART or mortality.”
“Midazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug that has powerful anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.

They diffract to 1 8 angstrom resolution and belong to the space

They diffract to 1.8 angstrom resolution and belong to the space groups 1422 with cell dimensions (i) a = b = 108.8 angstrom, c = 336.3 angstrom showing two molecules in the asymmetric unit, and (ii) a = b = 113.7 angstrom, c = 151.0 angstrom with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure has been solved by single anomalous dispersion using a 1.9 angstrom resolution. For further biochemical and biophysical investigations recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase has been produced in Escherichia coli. check details Both native (dissolved crystals) and recombinant material have been characterised by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-MS. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights

“Understanding the cognitive sequela of repeated cocaine use is

a growing area of research and is crucial to the development of cognitive models of addiction. We systematically reviewed all available placebo-controlled and case-controlled studies on the acute and long-term selleck chemical effects of cocaine on cognitive functioning. In order to compare the magnitude of cognitive effects across cognitive domains we conducted several meta-analyses on a subset of data from long-term effect studies. Studies on acute cocaine administration suggest enhancement of response inhibition and psychomotor speed, while all other domains appear to be unaffected or not investigated adequately. Long-term effects of cocaine show a wide array of deteriorated cognitive functions, indicating that long term cocaine use is characterized by a general cognitive impairment across functions, rather than by specific cognitive deficits. Literature on long-term cocaine effects is more substantial than literature on acute effects. This comprehensive review outlines possible dissociations and similarities of acute vs. long-term cocaine effects in the human brain. Atherosclerosis after cocaine exposure may this website underlie cognitive dysfunction, suggesting involvement of multiple brain areas.

Acute drug studies are important to the future development of addiction models. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Environmental enrichment (EE) has marked beneficial effects on cognitive capacity. Given the possibility that this form of neuronal plasticity could function via the actuation of the same cellular signaling pathways that underlie learning/memory formation, we examined whether the MAPK cascade effector, mitogen/stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), could play a role in this process. MSK1 functions as a key signaling intermediate that couples changes in neuronal activity into inducible gene expression, neuronal plasticity, and learning/memory. Here, we show that MSK1 is expressed in excitatory cell layers of the hippocampus, progenitor cells of the subgranular zone (SGZ), and adult-born immature neurons. MSK1(-/-) mice exhibit reduced spinogenesis and decreased dendritic branching complexity in hippocampal neurons, compared with WT mice.

Notably, this expression level is higher than any previously desc

Notably, this expression level is higher than any previously described production of hDAAOs. A yield of 100 mg of pure hDAAO/L culture thus became available in comparison to the 1-10 mg/L previously reported. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Gelsolin is an actin filament-severing and capping protein, affecting cellular motility, adhesiveness and apoptosis. Whether it is expressed in the brain of burned mice has not yet been characterized. Mice

were subjected to a 15% total body surface area scald injury. Neuropathology was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cerebral gelsolin mRNA, distribution and LDK378 cell line cleavage were demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively.

Cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-3-positive cells and activity were also measured. Burn injury could induce pathological alterations in the brain including leukocyte infiltration, necrosis, microabscess and gliosis. Compared with sham-injured mice, gelsolin mRNA was up-regulated at 8 h post-burn (pb) in a transient manner in the cortex and striatum of burned mice, while it remained at higher levels in the hippocampus up to 72 h pb. Of interest, gelsolin was further cleaved into 42 and 48 kDa (kilo Dalton) fragments DAPT chemical structure as illustrated in the hippocampus at 24 h pb, and was widely expressed in the brain by activated monocyte/macrophages, astrocytes and damaged neurons. In the meantime, caspase-3-positive cells were noted in the striatum of burned mice and its activity peaked at 24 h pb. To clarify inflammation-induced gelsolin expression and cleavage in the brain, rat pheochromocytoma cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide to show increased gelsolin expression and for caspase-3-dependent cleavage. The results suggest that burn-induced cerebral gelsolin expression would be involved in the activation of both the monocytes and astroglial cells, thereby playing a crucial role in the subsequent inflammation-induced neural apoptosis following burn injury. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to determine whether endophytic Bacillus cereus isolates from agronomic crops possessed genes for the nonhaemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) and haemolysin BL (HBL) and, therefore, have the potential to cause diarrhoeal illness in humans.

Methods and Results: PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of enterotoxin genes nheA, nheB, nheC, hblA, hblC, hblD in endophytic B. cereus. All nhe genes were detected in 59% of endophytic B. cereus, while all hbl genes were detected in 44%. All six genes were detected in 41% of isolates. Enterotoxin genes were not detected in 15% of B. cereus isolates. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR confirmed that endophytic B. cereus could express enterotoxin genes in pure culture.