We make suggestions
for metrics that better measure disease impact and show the benefits of more rigorous evaluation before reviewing recent attempts to measure the importance of disease to the poor. High impact of a disease does not guarantee high benefits from its control; other factors must be taken into consideration, including technical feasibility and political desirability. We conclude by considering how we might better understand and exploit the roles of livestock and improved animal health Alvocidib Cell Cycle inhibitor by posing three speculative questions on the impact of livestock diseases and their control on global poverty: how can understanding livestock and poverty links help disease control?; if global poverty reduction was the aim of livestock disease control, how would it differ from the current model?; and how much of the impact of livestock disease on poverty is due to disease control policy rather than disease itself?”
“A winding machine with heat treatment was newly developed to strengthen ramie yarns. During the treatment process, ramie yarn in normal or wet state was wound on a winding machine and passed continuously through a heater at 100 and 150 degrees C, respectively, with different winding speeds and tensions. Higher tensile strength and stiffness of ramie yarn was achieved after heat
treatment on wet yarn and winding speed had a significant influence on the tensile properties of yarns. Pevonedistat mouse However, a little decline in tensile strength was found for ramie yarns after heat treatment in normal state.
PCI-32765 supplier This implies that the water-swollened structure of ramie yarn during the heat treatment is crucial in strengthening yarns. In the case of heat treatment on wet yarns, the effect of winding tension on the tensile properties of yarns was studied. It was found that the tensile strengths and Young’s moduli of ramie yarns first increased and then reached equilibrium as the winding tension was increased. The crystallinity calculated from X-ray diffraction diagrams showed a slight decrease in heat-treated ramie yarns whereas the crystalline orientation factors had no appreciable change. It was considered that the improved effect was related to the more oriented molecular chains in amorphous region and optimized yarn structure. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 685-692, 2010″
“In this work a method for the spatially resolved detection of the Cr point defect distribution in p-type silicon based on photoluminescence imaging was developed and successfully applied on monocrystalline and multicrystalline wafers. Chromium was identified by its metastable defect configuration and the association time during the formation of chromium-boron pairs. Further defects which could influence the Cr concentration determination have been studied and their influence was suppressed.