“Background/Aims: Whereas

“Background/Aims: Whereas SB273005 clinical trial most children and adults respond to traditional eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) treatments, such as exclusion of dietary allergens or the use of topical steroids, a small fraction may not. Methods: Based on clinical experience and a review of the literature, the aim of this work is to provide practical advice for caring for ‘refractory’ patients with EoE. Results:The approach to this type of patient continues to evolve and decision-making should consider a number of issues including the patient’s age, lack of a complete understanding of the natural

history of this disease, risks of monitoring, and side effects of treatments. Next, one needs to define the term ‘refractory’ in that this can refer either to persistent symptoms or to continued inflammation in the face of presumably effective drug or diet therapy. Before considering alternative treatments, it is important to rule out any other cause of persistent symptoms. For instance, could they be related to an occult esophageal narrowing not identified at the time of endoscopy? Esophagrams may be necessary to identify localized or longitudinal selleck products narrowing that could be amenable to dilation. If symptoms and inflammation persist and no narrowing is appreciated, an elemental diet can be considered; however, the long-term use of this in older children and adults

may be difficult. Prednisone or systemic steroids may be indicated to induce remission, but side effects and complications associated selleck chemical with chronic use are limiting. Finally, the use of immunosuppression or biological agents has been reported in case reports and studies; use of these may be limited by side effects or the need to utilize compassionate use protocols. Conclusions: As the scope of esophageal eosinophilia continues to evolve, the clinical and molecular characterization of new clinical phenotypes will be important

so that new therapeutic targets can be identified. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Introduction: Surgical wound infection in colorectal surgery has incidence rate of up to 26%. Peri-operative factors and those of the patients themselves play a part in these infections. The correct administration of the antibiotic, a normal temperature, and hyperoxygenation are a commonly applied triad. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of surgical wound infection in patients subjective to colorectal surgery where a surgical infection prevention protocol was applied. The second objective was the relationship between surgical infection and peri-operative factors.\n\nMaterial and methods: An observational study was conducted on 100 patients who had undergone elective colorectal surgery. Demographic data and related surgical and post-surgical data were recorded.

Results The majority of patients (93 7%) were symptomatic H

\n\nResults. The majority of patients (93.7%) were symptomatic. Hemorrhage with resulting focal neurological deficit was the most common presentation in 53 patients (67%). Complete resection, as determined by postoperative MR imaging, was achieved in 76 patients (96.2%). Overall, the functional neurological status of patients improved after microsurgical dissection

at the time of discharge from the hospital and at follow-up. P-gp inhibitor At 6 months, 64 patients (81.0%) were improved relative to their preoperative condition and 14 patients (17.7%) were unchanged. Good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score <= 2, living independently) were achieved in 77 patients (97.4%). Multivariate analysis of demographic and surgical factors revealed that preoperative functional status was the only predictor of postoperative modified Rankin Scale score (OR 4.6, p = 0.001). Six patients (7.6%) had transient worsening of neurological examination after surgery, and 1 patient (1.3%) was permanently worse. There was no surgical mortality.\n\nConclusions.

The authors present a system of 13 microsurgical approaches to 6 location targets with 4 general trajectories to facilitate safe access to supratentorial CMs in eloquent brain regions. Favorable neurological outcomes following microsurgical resection justify an aggressive surgical attitude toward these lesions. (DOI: 10.3171/2010.5.JNS091159)”
“The authors aimed to clarify the effects of hypercapnic acidosis and its timing on gastric mucosal AZD2171 supplier oxygenation in a canine model of hemorrhage. This was designed as a prospective, controlled, randomized animal study set in a university research laboratory. Five chronically instrumented dogs were used. Dogs were repeatedly selleck anesthetized (sevoflurane 1.5 MAC), mechanically ventilated, and randomized to each of the following protocols. In a control series (CON), animals underwent hemorrhage during normoventilation (etCO(2), 35 mmHg). In a second series, hypercapnia (etCO(2), 70 mmHg)

was applied before onset of hemorrhage (prophylactic hypercapnia), whereas in the third series, hypercapnia was applied after hemorrhage (therapeutic hypercapnia, THE). Microvascular oxygenation (mu HbO(2)) of the gastric mucosa was continuously assessed by tissue reflectance spectrophotometry. Cardiac output was continuously measured, and oxygen delivery (DO2) was intermittently calculated. In CON, hemorrhage decreased DO2 (from 11 +/- 3 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) to 8 +/- 2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) and 8 +/- 2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) after 30 and 75 min, respectively) and mu HbO(2) (from 57% +/- 4% to 43% +/- 11% and 50% +/- 11%). Prophylactic hypercapnia attenuated the effects of hemorrhage on DO2 (12 +/- 2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) to 10 +/- 2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) and 11 +/- 2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) and preserved mu HbO(2) (52% +/- 3% to 47% +/- 5% and 57% T 3%). Initial effects of hemorrhage in THE were comparable to CON (DO2 from 11 +/- 2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) to 8 +/- 1 mL.kg(-1).

“Objective: To obtain quantitative data on the progression

“Objective: To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6. We report the results of the 1-and 2-year follow-up visits.\n\nMethods: As the primary outcome measure we used the Scale for KU57788 the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, 0-40), and as a secondary measure the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms (INAS, 0-16) count.\n\nResults:

The annual increase of the SARA score was greatest in SCA1 (2.18 +/- 0.17, mean +/- SE) followed by SCA3 (1.61 +/- 0.12) and SCA2 (1.40 +/- 0.11). SARA progression in SCA6 was slowest and nonlinear (first year: 0.35 +/- 0.34, second year: 1.44 +/- 0.34). Analysis of the INAS count yielded similar results. Larger expanded repeats and earlier age at onset were associated with faster SARA progression in SCA1 and SCA2. In SCA1, repeat length of the expanded allele had a similar effect on INAS progression. In SCA3, SARA progression was influenced Quizartinib solubility dmso by the disease duration

at inclusion, and INAS progression was faster in females.\n\nConclusions: Our study gives a comprehensive quantitative account of disease progression in SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 and identifies factors that specifically affect disease progression. Neurology (R) 2011; 77: 1035-1041″
“A newly developed mesoporous

mixed metal oxide (K-Cu-TiO2) catalyst is capable of highly selective, gas-phase benzyl alcoholbenzaldehyde transformation at excellent yields (>99%) under surprisingly low temperatures (203 degrees C, bp of benzyl alcohol). The tow-temperature reaction conditions and integration of K and Cu(I) components into the TiO2 matrix are of vital importance for the stabilization of an active Cu(I) oxidation state and resultant stable, excellent catalytic performance.”
“The accuracy of dynamical models for reactive scattering of molecular hydrogen, H(2), from metal surfaces is relevant to the validation of first principles electronic OICR-9429 mw structure methods for molecules interacting with metal surfaces. The ability to validate such methods is important to progress in modeling heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we study vibrational excitation of H(2) on Cu(111) using the Born-Oppenheimer static surface model. The potential energy surface (PES) used was validated previously by calculations that reproduced experimental data on reaction and rotationally inelastic scattering in this system with chemical accuracy to within errors <= 1 kcal/mol approximate to 4.2 kJ/mol [D az C, et al. (2009) Science 326: 832-834]. Using the same PES and model, our dynamics calculations underestimate the contribution of vibrational excitation to previously measured time-of-flight spectra of H(2) scattered from Cu(111) by a factor 3.

Moreover, when compared to wild-type DA neurons, LRRK2-G2019S iPS

Moreover, when compared to wild-type DA neurons, LRRK2-G2019S iPSC-derived DA neurons were more sensitive to caspase-3 activation

caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, MG-132, and 6-hydroxydopamine. In addition, SNCA-triplication iPSC-derived DA neurons formed early ubiquitin-positive puncta and were more sensitive to peak toxicity from hydrogen peroxide-induced stress. These aforementioned findings suggest that LRRK2-G2019S and SNCA-triplication iPSC-derived DA neurons exhibit early phenotypes linked to PD. Given the high penetrance of the homozygous LRRK2 mutation, the expression of wild-type alpha-synuclein protein in the SNCA-triplication line, and the clinical resemblance of patients afflicted with these familial disorders to sporadic PD patients, Z-IETD-FMK chemical structure these iPSC-derived neurons may be unique and valuable models for disease diagnostics and development of novel pharmacological agents for alleviation of relevant disease phenotypes.”
“A 45-year-old man presented with vertebral Wnt inhibitor collapse at L5 as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma and underwent spinal fusion surgery using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Subsequent computed tomography (CT) scans and X-rays revealed heterotopic ossification of the left psoas muscle, pelvis, and anterior abdominal wall. While the occurrence of heterotopic ossification has previously

been reported when rhBMP-2 has been used for spinal fusion surgery, this case demonstrates that it can occur to a much greater degree than previously seen.”
“Coronary artery fistula is a rare condition where a fistulous Cl-amidine Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor communication exists between the coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or vein. Mostly they are of congenital origin, but rarely may be acquired due to trauma, post cardiac surgery or angioplasty, or very rarely, because of coronary aneurysm rupture. Ours is an interesting case of a post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery status with a fistula in second obtuse marginal branch

of left circumflex coronary artery draining into left ventricle aneurysm. We explore possible causes including erosion of the thin aneurysmal wall into coronary lumen. Given the history of previous surgical revascularization, it may be a contained rupture and the possibility of pulsatile effect of the obtuse marginal branch eroding into the thin wall aneurysm is considered.”
“Two facile and green methods without any templates, catalysts, surfactants or organic solvents were applied to synthesize ZnSn(OH)(6) nanoparticles, i.e. homogeneous precipitation (HP) and hydrothermal (HT). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated on the degradation of organic pollutants under ultraviolet light illumination. Compared to commercial P25, the photoactivity of ZnSn(OH)(6) was remarkably improved.

The means by which operative access is gained through retraction

The means by which operative access is gained through retraction are many and diverse. In this article, the various HM781-36B forms of retraction methods currently available are reviewed, with special reference to hand held, self-retaining and compliant techniques. The special challenges posed

by laparoscopic surgery are considered and future developments in new retraction techniques are anticipated. (C) 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Halogenated diarylacetylenes that possess fluorine or chlorine substituents in one aryl ring and N-methylamino or N,N-dimethylamino

in the other aryl ring inhibit the proliferation of LS174T colon cancer cells through the repression of c-myc expression and induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-1 (i.e., p21(Wif1/Cip1)) and represent potentially useful antineoplastic agents. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Many studies have shown that arsenite click here is a potent inducer of apoptosis both in cells and tissues. However, there is a lack of appropriate in vivo animal models to study the underlying mechanisms of arsenite-induced apoptosis. Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for Microtubule Associat inhibitor studying many biological processes. We showed previously that C. elegans could be used as an in vivo system to investigate the genotoxic effects of arsenite. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of arsenite-induced apoptosis in vivo, in the present study, we used the mutated alleles of the C. elegans homologue of known mammalian genes that are involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Our results showed that the loss-of-function mutations

of p531cep-1 and DNA damage response (DDR) genes hus-1, clk-2, and egl-1 exhibited significant increase in germline apoptosis under arsenite exposure, whereas arsenite-induced germline apoptosis was blocked in loss-of-function alleles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (lin-45 (ku51), mek-2 (n 1989), and mpk-1 (ku 1)), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (jkk-1 (km2), mek-1 (ks54), jnk-1 (gU), mkk-4 (ju91)), and p38 (nsy-1 (ag 3), sek-1 (ag]), and pmk-1 (km25)) MAPK cascades. These results suggest that arsenite-induced apoptosis occurs independently of p53/cep-1 and the DNA damage response (DDR) genes hus-1, clk-2, and egl-1 and that the C. elegans caspase gene ced-3, Apaf-1 homologue ced-4, and the MAPK signaling pathways are essential for germline apoptosis. Moreover, our study demonstrates that C. elegans could be a mammalian in vivo substitute model to study the mechanisms of apoptosis.

“BackgroundProtein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of

“BackgroundProtein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of platelet function and secretion. The underlying molecular pathway from PKC to secretion, however, is poorly understood. By a proteomics screen we identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-2 as a candidate PKC substrate. ObjectivesWe aimed to validate cytohesin-2 as a PKC

substrate in platelets and to determine its role in granule secretion and other platelet responses. Methods and resultsImmunoprecipitation was performed with a phosphoserine PKC substrate antibody followed by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of cytohesin-2. By western blotting we showed that different agonists induced cytohesin-2 phosphorylation by PKC. Protein function Navitoclax research buy was investigated using a pharmacological approach. The cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3 significantly enhanced platelet dense granule secretion CH5183284 in vitro and aggregation, as measured by lumi-aggregometry. Flow cytometry data indicate that -granule release and integrin (IIb3) activation were not affected by cytohesin-2 inhibition. Lysosome secretion was assessed by a colorimetric assay and was also unchanged. As shown by western blotting, ARF6 interacted with cytohesin-2 and was present in an active GTP-bound form under basal conditions. Upon platelet stimulation, this interaction was largely lost and ARF6 activation

decreased, both of which could be rescued by PKC inhibition. ConclusionsCytohesin-2 constitutively suppresses platelet dense granule secretion and aggregation by keeping ARF6 in a GTP-bound state. PKC-mediated phosphorylation of cytohesin-2 NSC 707544 relieves this inhibitory effect, thereby promoting platelet secretion and aggregation.”
“AimColorectal cancer

(CRC) screening programmes detect early cancers but unfortunately have limited sensitivity and specificity. Mass spectrometry-based determination of serum peptide and protein profiles provides a new approach for improved screening. MethodSerum samples were obtained from 126 CRC patients before treatment and 277 control individuals. An additional group of samples from 50 CRC patients and 82 controls was used for validation. Peptide and protein enrichments were carried out using reverse-phase C18 and weak-cation exchange magnetic beads in an automated solid-phase extraction and spotting procedure. Profiles were acquired on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight system. Discriminant rules using logistic regression were calibrated for the peptide and protein signatures separately, followed by combining the classifications to obtain double cross-validated predicted class probabilities. Results were validated on an identical patient set. ResultsA discriminative power was found for patients with CRC representative for all histopathological stages compared with controls with an area under the curve of 0.95 in the test set (0.

Respondents with complete SCI performed a max test on an arm ergo

Respondents with complete SCI performed a max test on an arm ergometer.\n\nResults: Exercisers with complete SCI reported a significantly higher perceived exercise mastery (P = 0.002) and exercisers with incomplete SCI reported a significantly lower perceived exercise mastery (P = 0.012) than nonexercisers. Exercisers in both groups reported a higher perceived fitness (complete SCI, P = 0.016; incomplete SCI, P = 0.004) than nonexercisers. A regression analysis showed that exercising versus nonexercising (exercise status) was the only variable that contributed 4SC-202 ic50 to the variance in perceived exercise

mastery for persons with complete SCI (P<0.001). For persons with incomplete injury, exercise status and exercise hours per week contributed to the variance in perceived exercise mastery.\n\nConclusion: selleck chemical Although perceived fitness is associated with exercise in the whole SCI population, perception of exercise mastery is negatively related to exercise in persons with incomplete SCI, in contrast to those with complete lesions. Spinal Cord (2010) 48, 388-392; doi:10.1038/sc.2009.136; published online 13 October 2009″
“Appropriate use criteria

(AUC) for single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion images (SPECT-MPI) were developed to address the growth of cardiac imaging studies. However, these criteria have not been vigorously validated. We sought to determine the rate of abnormal stress SPECT-MPI studies and subsequent revascularization procedures as categorized by AUC.\n\nWe retrospectively examined 280 patients A1155463 who underwent stress SPECT-MPI and categorized these studies as appropriate,

inappropriate, or uncertain based on AUC. Data regarding subsequent angiography and revascularization within 6 months after stress SPECT-MPI were collected from the electronic medical record.\n\n280 patients met the inclusion criteria (mean age 67.3 +/- A 11.4 years, 36 % female). When categorized by AUC, 62.9 % (N = 176) of stress SPECT-MPI were considered appropriate, 13.6 % (N = 38) uncertain, and 23.6 % (N = 66) inappropriate. Appropriate stress SPECT-MPI studies were more likely to have intermediate or high risk results than uncertain or inappropriate studies [40 % (N = 71) vs. 21 % (N = 8) and 18 % (N = 12), respectively; P = 0.008)]. Appropriate studies were associated with an increased rate of coronary angiography [14 % (N = 25)] compared to the uncertain (0 %) and inappropriate [3 % (N = 2)] studies (P = 0.003). There was also an increased rate of revascularization after appropriate studies [9 % (N = 16)] compared to the uncertain (0 %) and inappropriate (0 %) studies (P = 0.006).\n\nAppropriate stress SPECT-MPI studies are more likely to result in abnormal results requiring subsequent revascularization compared to inappropriate and uncertain stress studies.

The hypothesis was formulated before

The hypothesis was formulated before LY333531 manufacturer data collection. RESULTS Our analysis included 671 original articles (336 from 2000 and 335 from 2010) and 89 editorials. The percentage of original articles with a woman as first author increased from 23.2% in 2000 to 32.5% in 2010, a difference of 9.3% (95% CI, 23.3%-32.5%;

P = .005). The percentage of original articles with a woman last author increased from 16.4% in 2000 to 24.2% in 2010, a difference of 7.8% (95% CI, 16.4%-24.2%; P = .01). The percentage of original articles with a woman first author increased in Asia from 1.2% in 2000 to 8.4% in 2010, a difference of 7.2% (95% CI, 1.2%-8.4%; P smaller than .001). The percentage of articles with a woman last author increased in Europe from 2.2% in 2000 to 7.5% in 2010, a difference of 5.3% (95% CI, 2.2%-7.5%; P smaller than .001) and in Asia from 0% in 2000 to 6.0% in 2010, a difference of 6.0% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P smaller than .001). Editorials were written selleck chemicals llc predominantly by men: 33 of

38 editorials (87%) in 2000 and 46 of 51 (90%) in 2010, a difference of 3% (95% CI, 87%-90%; P = .62), showing a trend toward decreased editorial authorship by women during the past decade. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our data suggest an increase in women publishing original investigations in ophthalmic literature, but no increase in editorial authorship.”
“The present study reported the case of a patient with primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) occurring in the left major psoas. A 24-year-old male patient presented with one-month history of left lower back pain, which had been exacerbated for 10 days prior to admission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed an enlarged major psoas muscle that protruded into the inguinal region. The presence of an intense soft tissue

mass on MRI scans, as well as the results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and immunohistochemical analysis of the mass, may help establish an early diagnosis, allowing for the appropriate treatment strategy to be initiated.”
“Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of postoperative adjuvant trans, catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with microscopic venous invasion. Methodology: Data from 76 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy with or buy ATM Kinase Inhibitor without postoperative adjuvant TACE between July 2005 and August 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival between the groups and prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 76.3%, 44.5% and 31.8%, respectively, for the adjuvant TACE group (35 patients) and 60.1%, 39.3% and 21.5%, respectively, for the control group (41 patients). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 88.6%, 67.2% and 42.3%, respectively, for the TACE group and 77.5%, 58.0% and 40.

The risk of establishment of other exotic pathogens (epizootic ha

The risk of establishment of other exotic pathogens (epizootic haematopoietic necrosis and epizootic ulcerative syndrome) increases. The spread of Lactococcus garvieae northwards in Europe is likely to continue, and thus is more likely to be

both introduced and become established. Measures to reduce the threat of exotic pathogens need to be revised to account for the changing exotic diseases threat. Increasing water temperatures and the negative effects of extreme weather events (e.g. storms) are likely to alter the freshwater environment adversely for both wild and farmed salmonid populations, increasing their susceptibility to click here disease and the likelihood of disease emergence. For wild populations, surveillance and risk mitigation need to be focused on locations where disease emergence, as a result of climate change, is most likely.”
“The role of predation in ecological systems has received considerable attention in scientific literature and is one of the most important, yet least understood aspects of carnivore ecology. Knowledge of factors that improve our ability to detect predation events using animal telemetry data

could be used to develop strategies to reduce time and resources required to obtain reliable kill estimates. Using Global Positioning System telemetry-collars, we investigated 246 bobcat Lynx rufus location clusters to identify white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus kill sites in GDC-0973 mw the Upper Peninsula

this website of Michigan, USA, during May-August, 2009-2011. We documented kills of white-tailed deer at 42 location clusters. We used logistic regression and Akaike Information Criterion for small samples to identify factors (i.e. number of locations in cluster, time from cluster formation to investigation, time of day and land cover) that may influence bobcat behaviour and our ability to detect white-tailed deer kill sites. Clusters with more locations and the search of clusters within 14 days after cluster formation increased odds of detecting bobcat kill sites. The best-performing model was 67% accurate overall and identified 34% of kill sites and 75% of non-kill sites. Applying our best-performing model with the optimal cut-off value would result in a twofold increase in the identification of white-tailed deer kill sites reducing time and effort to find a similar number of kill sites without models by half. Identifying factors that improve our ability to identify bobcat kill sites can reduce field effort and search time.”
“Cholesterol is mostly removed from the CNS by its conversion to cerebrosterol (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)OH-C), which is transported to the circulation for bile formation in liver.

Given the decreased morbidity of subsequent loop ileostomy takedo

Given the decreased morbidity of subsequent loop ileostomy takedown compared with a Hartmann’s reversal, this procedure should be given consideration in the management of acute, perforated diverticulitis but may not be warranted in cases of feculent peritonitis. (J Trauma. 2012; 72: 807-814. Copyright (C) 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)”
“Objective: To evaluate the morphological effects of phenobarbital treatment on new bone formation and on bone marrow biomechanics

in Wistar rats. Methods: We used ten rats that were divided into two groups: control (CT) and phenobarbital (FE). The FE group received daily doses of phenobarbital 0.035 ml / kg intramuscularly for 60 days. The CT group received the same dose and route of administration of 0.9% saline solution. After 30 days, we introduced a bone see more defect in the parietal bone and implanted porous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in cavities in the tibia. After surgery, we continued the protocols until the end of 60 days when the rats were euthanized, and the bones were collected. Results: The volume of bone formed around HAP in parietal defect and biornechanical findings were lower in animals receiving FE compared to CT. Conclusion: Prolonged use of phenobarbital interferes with bone repair after injury, decreasing the osseointegration of RAP implants and making bones less resistant.”
“Objective: AlcoholEdu for College is a 2- to 3-hour online course for incoming college selleck inhibitor freshmen. This study was the first

multicampus trial to examine effects of AlcoholEdu for College on alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Method: Thirty universities participated in the study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive AlcoholEdu,

and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. AlcoholEdu was implemented by intervention schools during the summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university beginning before the intervention in spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in fall 2008/2009 and spring 2009/2010. The surveys included questions about the past-30-day frequency Tariquidar cost of 28 alcohol-related problems, from which we created indices for the total number of problems and problems in seven domains: physiological, academic, social, driving under the influence/riding with drinking drivers, aggression, sexual risk taking, and victimization. Multilevel Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine intent-to-treat and dosage effects of AlcoholEdu for College on these outcomes. Results: Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the risk for past-30-day alcohol problems in general and problems in the physiological, social, and victimization domains during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist in the spring semester. Additional analyses suggested stronger AlcoholEdu effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion.